This database, incorporating scientific publications only, is directed to decision makers, to scientists, human health authorities and the worried public in whaling nations. It offers data on the level of toxic substances in whale meat and associated contamination levels in consumers as well as related human health risks.
YearRegionCountryToxinsSpeciesRisksMethodReferenceLinkResultsToxic burden in cetaceansToxic burden in human
1997North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speed, autism, hypertension / cardiovescular diseasescohort studiesGrandjean P, Weihe P, White RF, Debes F, Araki S, Yokoyama K, Murata K, Sorensen N, Dahl R, Jorgensen PJ (1997): Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol. Teratol.19(6):417-428.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9392777birth cohort of 1,022 children: first examination at age of seven years, second at age of 14 yrs: decrements in attention, language, memory, motor speed and visuospatial function; expousre-related decrease in heart rate variability and tendency of increased blood pressure; effects shown to be irreversible15% of mothers in the cohort study had hair mercury levels above 10 , whereas cord blood concentrations ranged up to 350 µg/l [i.e. about 100-fold more than the upper reference limit in Denmark]
2011North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)diabetes (type 2)cohort studiesGrandjean P, Henriksen JE, Choi AL, Petersen MS, Dalgård C, Nielsen F, Weihe P (2011): Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiology 22(3):410-417.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3107006/pdf/nihms-277148.pdfcohort of 713 adults (age 70-74 yrs): persons with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of pilot whale and other traditional foodSerum PCB concentrations covered a range from a background level of 0.7 µg/g lipid to a high level of 70 µg/g lipid (a 100-fold range). DDE averaged slightly less than half of the PCB concentration, and the two were highly correlated.
2012ArcticGreenland (Denmark)mercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/ameasure of whole blood mercuryJeppesen C, Jorgensen ME, Bjerregaard P (2012): Assessment of consumption of marine food in Greenland by a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers. Int J Circumpolar Health 2012, 71: 18361http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/index.php/ijch/article/view/18361on average consumption: seal = 46.9 g/day; whale = 27.6 g/day; fish = 61.g/day; clear correlation between blood mercury and seal consumption, followed by whale consumption. Only fish intake was not associated with blood mercury0.583 µg/g wet weight in toothed whales in Greenlandblood mercury: 1.028 µg/l, when consuming 10 g whale meat/day
2002North PacificJapanmercurysmall cetaceans (others or not identified)acute intoxicationtissue analysis (dolphin meat from retail outlets)Endo T, Haraguchi K, Sakata, M (2002): Mercury and selenium concentrations in the internal organs of toothed whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan. Sci Total Environ 300: 15–22http://www.marineconnection.org/docs/Contamination2.pdfmercury concentration in boiled liver, kidney and lung products marketed in Japan: total mercury in liver: 370-525 µg/g; in kidney: 40.5-48.5; in lung: 42.8-43.8 µg/g. The maximal mercury concentration detected in boiled liver (1,980 µg/g) exceeds Japan's safety limits by 5,000 times, being a risk for acute intoxication even after a single consumption of the productup to 1,980 µg/g in liver tissues of different small cetaceans
2003ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)reduced birth weight, reduced duration of pregnancy, reduced reflexes in newborns, immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptors, cancer (hormone-dependent)biochemical analysis of maternal bloodVan Oostdam J, Donaldson S, Feeley M, Tremblay N (2003): Toxic Substances in the Arctic and Associated Effects - Human Health. Canadian Arctic Contaminant Assessment Report II. Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Canadahttp://caid.ca/CanArtCon2.2003.pdfprenatal exposure to DDT is associated with recurrent middle ear infections; prenatal exposure to PCB had effects on birth weight, duration of pregnancy and visual memory; contamination levels in Inuit significantly higher than in Caucasians and Dene and MetisOxychlordane and Trans-nonachlor: highest in Inuit from Baffin area (0.58 µg/l plasma and 0.64, respectively); DDT: 0.14 µg/l for Baffin and 0.09 for Kivalliq and Nunavik; DDE: 2.2 µg/l in Nunavik and 2.1 µg/l in Baffin; HCB: highest in Inuit from Kitikmeot (0.56 µg/l) and Baffin (0.53 µg/l); Toxaphene: highest in Inuit from Kivalliq (0.74 µg/l), followed by Kitikmeot (0.69 µg/l), Baffin (0.59 µg/l) and Inuvik (0.49 µg/l); HCH compared to other regions low with 0.04-0.11 µg/g in different Inuit populations
1999North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)reduced birth weight, heart rate variability, hypertension / cardiovescular diseasescohort studiesSørensen N, Murata K, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Weihe P, Grandjean P (1999): Prenatal methylmercury exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor at seven years of age. Epidemiology 10(4):370-5http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10401870prenatal exposure to methylmercury is associated with higher diastolic and systolic blood pressure; mercury effect being stronger in children with lower birth weights. In boys, heart rate variability decreased with increasing mercury exposures. Findings suggest that prenatal exposure to methylmercury may affect the development of cardiovascular homeostasis.when cord blood mercury concentration increased from 1 to 10 µg/l the diastolic and systolic blood pressure increased by 13.9 mmHg and 14.6 mmHg.
2006North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in motor speedcohort studiesDebes F, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Weihe P, White RF, Grandjean P. (2006): Impact of prenatal methylmercury exposure on neurobehavioral function at age 14 years. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 28(5): 536-47
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1543702/pdf/nihms11252.pdfbirth cohort at 14 yrs old children: Indicators of prenatal methylmercury exposure were significantly associated with deficits in finger tapping speed, reaction time on a continued performance task, and cued naming. Postnatal methylmercury exposure had no discernible effect. Effects on brain function associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure therefore appear to be multi-focal and permanentPrenatal expousre: in cord blood meercury levels of up to 0.35 µg/ml, in maternal hair up to 39.1 µg/g. Exposure at 7 yrs: up to 0.063 µg/ml in blood and 37.6 µg/g in hair. Exposure at 14 yrs: up to 0.04 µg/ml in blood and 9.65 µg/g in hair.
2012North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/acohort studiesWeihe P, Debes Joensen H (2012): Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands. Int J Circumpolar Health 71: 18594http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417701/pdf/IJCH-71-18594.pdfseveral recommendations in the past to reduce pilot whale consumption (and for reproductive women to halt) resulted in a significant decrease of mercury and POP concentrations in their blood. Nevertheless authors concluded after additional diseases associated with contaminants that pilot whale meat is no longer recommended for human consumption.average concentrations of both PCB and DDE in pilot whale blubber are higher than 10 µg/160 g; mercury in meat 2 µg/gPCB in serum: 0.42-1.21 µg/G; mercury cord blood: 4.6-20.4 µg/l; mercury maternal hair: 0.7-4.08 µg/g; DDE: 0.13-0.72 µg/g
2009North PacificJapanPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), HBCD (hexabromo-cyclododecanes) , CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)n/aanalysis of samples of stranded dolphins and those caught in TaijiIsobe T, Ochi Y, Ramu K, Yamamoto T, Tajima Y, Yamada TK, Amano M, Miyazaki N, Takahashi S, Tanabe S (2009): Organohalogen contaminants in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Japan: Present contamination status, body distribution and temporal trends (1978–2003): Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 396–401http://www.kahaku.go.jp/research/researcher/papers/26202.pdfPCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, PBDEs and HBCDs were all significantly detected; no significant difference in concentrations among the analyzed tissues, except for brain, which had lower levels possibly due to the existence of blood–brain barrier. While concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs did not change significantly during 1978–2003, PBDEs and HBCDs remarkably increasedPCB: up to 42 µg/g fat; DDT: up to 130 µg/g; CHL: up to 12 µg/g; HCB: up to 1.1 µg/g; HCH: 0.5 µg/g; PBDE: 0.85 µg/g; HBCD: 0.94 µg/g
2010North AtlanticUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)n/ablubber samplesYordy J, Mollenhauer M, Wilson R, Wells R, Hohn A, Sweeney J, Schwacke L, Rowles T, Kucklick J, Peden-Adams M (2010): Complex contaminant exposure in cetaceans: a comparative E-Screen analysis of bottlenose dolphin blubber and mixtures of four persistent organic pollutants. Environ Toxicol Chem. 29(10): 2143-53http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.279/full"These results suggest that select bottlenose dolphin populations may be exposed to contaminants that act in concert to exert estrogenic effects at biologically relevant concentrations. These observations do not necessarily provide direct evidence of endocrine disruption; however, they may indicate an environmental source of xenoestrogenic exposure warranting future research."PCB: up to 76 µg/g ; PBDE: up to 3.41 µg/g; DDT: up to 27.1 µg/g; CHL: up to 5.26 µg/g; HCB: up to 0.15; Dieldrin: up to 1.2 µg/g (wet weight)
2010ArcticGreenland (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsBonefeld-Jorgensen E (2010): Biomonitoring in Greenland: human biomarkers of exposure and effects – a short review. Rural and Remote Health 10: 1362.http://www.rrh.org.au/publishedarticles/article_print_1362.pdfA high intake of traditional Greenlandic diet (eg seal, whale, polar bear) together with smoking caused higher blood concentrations of POPs. The highest POP values were found on the east coast of Greenland. Highest PCB levels were found in people from Ittoqqortoormit, highest mercury levels in Qaanaaq. "In conclusion, the actual cocktail of serum POPs in the Greenlandic Inuit has endocrine disrupting potential."PCB burden highest in peopole from Ittoqqortoormit (Scoresbysund): 4.9 µg/g lipid; lowest in Sisimiut: 0.5 µg/g. Mercury: highest in Qaanaaq: 51.8 µg/l and lowest in Nuuk: 9.3 µg/g
2005North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), small cetaceans (others or not identified), large whale (others or unidentified)n/acomparison mercury content in different fish (e.g. halibut, cod, mackerel) and cetacean samplesBooths & Zeller D (2005): Mercury, Food Webs, and Marine Mammals: Implications of Diet and Climate Change for Human Health. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (5): 521-526http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257541/pdf/ehp0113-000521.pdf"Cod had approximately 95% lower methyl mercury concentrations than did pilot whale. Thus, the high and harmful levels of methyl mercury in the diet of Faroe Islanders are driven by whale meat consumption, and the increasing impact of climate change is likely to exacerbate this situation. Significantly, base inflow rates of mercury into the environment would need to be reduced by approximately 50% to ensure levels of intake below the WHO TWI levels, given current levels of whale consumption."methyl mercury in pilot whales: up to 1.92 µg/g, in other toothed whales: up to 3 µg/g, in baleen whales up to 0.13 µg/g
2010globalPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), brucellosisbeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), Orca (Orcinus orca), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)n/areview of publicationsBossart GD (2010): Marine Mammals as Sentinel Species for Oceans and Human Health. Vet Pathol 48(3): 676-690http://www.marineland.net/images/pdfs/Marine%20Mammals%20as%20Sentinels%20for%20Oceans%20and%20Human.pdf "Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. .. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems."brucellosis known from different cetaceans
2009North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)arteriosclerosis, hypertension / cardiovescular diseasesmercury analysis in toe nails and blood of 42 Faroese whaling menChoi A, Weihe P, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Jørgensen J, Salonen J, Tuomainen TP, Murata K, Nielsen HP, Petersen M, Askham J & Grandjean P (2009): Methylmercury Exposure and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects in Faroese Whaling Men. Environmental Health Perspectives 117 (3): 367-372.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2661905/pdf/ehp-117-367.pdf63% of the whaling men consumed three or more whale meals per month. The toenail mercury concentrations varied widely and had a geometric mean of 2.0 µg/g; hair concentrations averaged about 3-fold higher. Mercury exposure was significantly associated with increased blood pressure and intima-media thickness (a method indicating risks for arteriosklerosis). Conclusion: increased MeHg exposure promotes the development of cardiovascular diseasemercury in blood up to 128.4 µg/l, in toe nails up to 8.26 µg/g, in hair up to 46 µg/g (decrease compared to 7 years before); PCB in serum up to 42.6 µg/g lipid)
2006North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)immuno system depression (frequent infections)two birth cohortsHeilmann C, Grandjean P, Weihe P, Nielsen F, Budtz-Jørgense E (2006): Reduced Antibody Responses to Vaccinations in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls. PLoS Med 3(8): e311. DOI:
10.1371/journal.pmed.0030311
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0030311Following routine childhood vaccinations against tetanus and diphtheria, 119 children were examined at 18 months and 129 children at 7 yrs of age. Antibody response to diphtheria at age 18 months decreased in correlation with PCB exposure. Negative correlation between PCB and response to tetanus vaccination was mainly at age of 7 years. Conclusion: "Increased perinatal exposure to PCBs may adversely impact on immune responses to childhood vaccinations."Maternal serum PCB concentration: up to 2.15 µg/g lipid. Milk PCB concentration: up to 2.78 µg/g lipid. Cord blood mercury concentration: up to 41.2 µg/l
2000ArcticCanadadieldrin, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)immuno system depression (frequent infections)birth cohortsDewailly E, Ayotte P, Bruneau S, Gingras S, Belles-Isles M, Roy R (2000): Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines. Environ Health Perspect 108:205-211http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1637954/Inuit infacts in Nunavik: "the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. Furthermore, the risk of recurrent otitis media (3 or more episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds.PCB in breast milk fat: up to 0.73 µg/g. HCB up to 0.125 µg/g. DDE: up to 1.18 µg/g. Dieldrin up to 0.016 µg/g
2006North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/abirth cohortsBarr D, Weihe P, Davis M, Needham L, Grandjean P (2006): Serum polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine insecticide concentrations in a Faroese birth cohort. Chemosphere 62(7):1167-82https://heinz.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/6275/grandjean_serum_2006.pdf"Multivariate analyses showed that breastfeeding duration was the primary contributor to serum summationPCB concentrations at 7 years, and blubber consumption was the primary contributor at 14 years. These data suggest that infant exposures from breastfeeding were sufficiently large so that continued exposures to PCBs, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE through the diet have not fully diluted their contribution to the summationPCB and p,p'-DDE body burden of the children"mean total PCB levels in cord blood: 1.07 ng/g serum, DDE: 2.23 ng/g. At 7 yrs: total PCB 5.99 ng/g; at 14 yrs: total PCB 2.86 ng/g, DDE 2.42 ng/g
2008North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)birth cohortsWeihe P, Kato K, Calafat A, Wanigatunga A, Needham L, Grandjean P (2008): Serum Concentrations of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Faroese Whale Meat Consumers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (16): 6291–6295http://ukpmc.ac.uk/abstract/MED/18767701Analysis of serum concentration of nine different polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Faroese children and pregnant women. "In children aged 7 years, a tendency of higher PFC concentrations was seen in those who included whale in their diet (data not shown). At age 14 years, PFOS, PFDeA, and PFNA were significantly associated with the frequency of pilot whale dinners... A high intake of two pilot whale dinners per month is associated with increases in the 14-year serum concentrations of PFOS, PFNA, and PFDeA by almost 25%, 50%, and 100%, when compared to concentrations in subjects eating little or no whale at all... The high frequency of detection of most PFCs suggests widespread exposure in the Faroe Islands already by the early 1990s, with whale meat being an important source."Authors report: "The highest average concentrations were for PFOS (with one child at age 7 years exceeding 100 ng/mL), followed by PFOA and the rest of the PFCs. The PFOS mean increased from 29 ng/mL to 33 ng/mL (p = 0.09) between 7 and 14 years of age, and a 3-fold increase was seen in the PFHxS (p < 0.001, paired t-test) concentrations. However, decreases were observed for PFOA (p = 0.001) and PFOSA (p < 0.001), and Et-PFOSA-AcOH between 7 and 14 years (p < 0.001) (Table 2). During the same period, the children did not change their frequency of fish dinners, but whale meat dinners decreased from an average of 1.9 per month
at age 7 years to 0.8 at age 14."
2012North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby), immuno system depression (frequent infections)birth cohortsGrandjean P, Wreford Andersen E, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Nielsen F, Mølbak K, Weihe P, Heilmann C (2012): Serum Vaccine Antibody Concentrations in Children Exposed to Perfluorinated Compounds. J Am Med Assoc 307(4):391-397http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104903PFCs in the child’s serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years. A 2-fold higher concentration of major PFCs in child serum was associated with a difference of -49% in the overall antibody concentration. Conclusion: "Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years"maternal leevls of PFCs: PFOS up to 0.033 µg/ml. PFOA up to 0.004 µg/ml. PFHxS up to 0.008 µg/ml. PFCs at age 5 years: PFOS up to 0.021 µg/ml. PFOA up to 0.005 µg/ml. PFHxS up to 0.001 µg/ml.
2002Mediterranean SeaItaly, SpainPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104PCB levels in fin whales in the Mediterranean Sea were second highest compared to other geographic regions (max levels in NW Atlantic).toxic burden in blubber: DDT levels in Mediterranean Sea in bottlenose dolphin: up to 1,100 µg/g, in fin whale up to 10.76 µg/g; PCB: in bottlenose dolphin: up to 2,100 µg/g , in fin whale up to 24.26 µg/g;
2002North PacificUSA, Canada, JapanPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104Author state that "levels of HCHs, chlordanes and HCB were moderate to high in the cold waters of the North Pacific."toxic burden in blubber: bottlenose dolphins: PCB up to 182.86 µg/g, DDT up to 2,745.71 µg/g; harbour porpoise in NE Pacific (USA): PCB up to 29.18 µg/g, DDT up to 79.61 µg/g; in NW Pacific (Japan): up to 10.26 µg/G PCB and 12.47 µg/g DDT
2002North AtlanticIceland, Canada, Greenland, Faroe Islands, United Kingdom, Norway, Netherlands, Poland,PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104Highest PCB levels in fin whales were found in NW Atlantic (up to 34.07 µg/g), in harbour porpoise were found in United Kingdom (up to 138.57 µg/g). For harbour porpoise highest DDT levels were detected in the Black Sea (257.14 µg/g) and Denmark (202.25 µg/g)fin whales (NW Atlantic, Canada): DDT up to 43.62 µg/g, PCB up to 34.07 µg/g; in NE Atlantic (Iceland) DDT up to 3.49 µg/G and PCB up to 3.24 µg/g; bottlenose dolphin: USA (NW coast): DDT up to 63.97 µg/g, PCB up to 195.48µg/g;
2002Indian OceanIndia, South AfricaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104highest DDT levels of all bottlenose dolphins surveyed worldwide were found off India (max. 2,957.14 µg/g lipid)bottlenose dolphins: DDT levels off India up to 2,957.14 µg/g, PCB off South Africa up to 67.18 µg/g
2002South PacificChilePCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104Contaminant levels in fin whales off Chile were lower than in the Mediterrenean Sea but higher than in NE Atlantic.fin whales: DDT levels off Chile: 0.08 µg/g; bottlenose dolphin: off Australia: DDT up to 3.44 µg/g, PCB 0.09 µg/g
2002AntarcticPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/areview of publications since 1960sAguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104DDT and PCB levels in marine mammals were low, but are increasing over recent decades (shown in minke whale); Authors expect the Antartic to become a major sink for organochlorines in the future, although to a lesser extinct compared to the Arctic region.within the period 1984-1993 PCB levels increased, while no trend was observed for DDT, HCB and HCH
2002globalPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/areview of publications (> 950 references since 1960s)Aguilar A, Borrell A, Reijnders, P. (2002): Geographical and temporal variation in levels of organochlorine contaminants in marine mammals. Mar Environ Res. 53: 425-452.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12054104highest organochlorine loads were found in moderate regions of Europe highest in Mediterranean Sea) and North America. HCHs, chlordanes and HCB were moderate to high in cold waters of North Pacific. DDT and PCB levels in marine mammals were lowest in both polar regions, but increasing over recent decades. Authors expect the polar regions to become major sinks for organochlorines in the future, with the Arctic being at higher risk. Increase of HCH levels was reported for beluga (Canada, W. Hudson Bay) and narwhal (Canada, Lancaster Sound), while HCB levels in in striped dolphin (Japan) and beluga (Canada, St. Lawrence Gulf) seem to decrease.Bottlenose dolphin: worldwide highest level of PCB found in Mediterranean Sea (off Italy) (2,100 µg/g lipid), for DDT max. level of 2,957.14 µg/g lipid off India. Fin whales: PCB and DDT in Mediterranen Sea up to 24.26 µg/g and up to 10.7 µg/g lipid weight, off Iceland 3.24 and 3.49 µg/g, off Canada up to 34.07 and 43.62 µg/g, off Chile up to 4.6 µg/g. Harbour porpoise: off Denmark PCB up to 382.02 µg/g, DDT up to 202.23 µg/g, in Black Sea DDT up to 257.14 µg/g , off Greenland PCB up to 7.86 µg/g; off Faroe Islands PCB up to 15.77 µg/g and DDT up to 8.0 µg/g, off Canada PCB up to 9.13 µg/g and DDT up to 8.91 µg/g [for more details and regions see long table in original paper)
2000ArcticAlaskamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/atissue analysis (Cook Inlet population); comparison with data from other beluga populations in Alaska, Greenland and CanadaBecker P, Krahn M, Mackey E, Demiralp R, Schantz M, Epstein M, Donais MK, Porter B, Muir D, Wise, S (2000): Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals and other elements in tissues of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, from Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marine Fisheries Review 62(3): 81-98http://aquaticcommons.org/9772/1/mfr6238.pdfhighest PCB and DDT concentrations were found in belugas from St Lawrence estuary. Cook Inlet population: has lowest PCB and DDT burden, with 1.49 µg/g PCB (in blubber of males) and 0.97 µg/g (in females) on average and 1.35 and 0.59 µg/g. Lower contamination levels in females is probably caused by transfer from mother to calf. Total mercury levels were lowest in Cook Inlet belugas, compared to other populations; however, methyl mercury levels were similar. Chlordane portion to toal contamination burden lower than in other beluga populations.Cook Inlet belugas (wet mass): PCB (blubber): 1.49 µg/g PCB (males) and 0.97 µg/g (females) on average DDT (blubber): 1.35 (males) and 0.59 µg/g (females). total Mercury (liver): up to11.42 µg/g (males) and 5.03 in females; Chlordane (blubber): 0.56 (males) and 0.3 µg/g (females); Toxaphene (blubber): 2.4 (males) and 2.02 µg/g (females); Dieldrin (blubber): 0.009 (males) and 0.006 µg/g (females); HCB (blubber): 0.22 (males) and 0.15 µg/g (females); HCH (blubber): 0.21 (males) and 0.17 µg/g (females);
2005ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)reduced birth weight, immuno system depression (frequent infections)biochemical analysis of blood samplesVan Oostdam J, Donaldson SG, Feeley M, Arnold D, Ayotte P, Bondy G, Chan L, Dewaily E, Furgal CM, Kuhnlein H, Loring E, Muckle G, Myles E, Receveur O, Tracy B, Gill U, Kalhok S. (2005): Human health implications of environmental contaminants in Arctic Canada: A review. ci Total Environ. 351-352:165-246.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16297438Contamination with organochlorine compounds and toxic metals is higher in Eastern than in Western Canadian Arctic. The authors note: "In recent dietary surveys among five Inuit regions, mean intakes by 20- to 40-year-old adults in Baffin, Kivalliq and Inuvialuit communities exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intakes (pTDIs) for the OCs, chlordane and toxaphene... Studies of infant development in Nunavik have linked deficits in immune function, an increase in childhood respiratory infections and birth weight to prenatal exposure to OCs." PCB and HCH levels in maternal blood in Inuits from Nunavut and Nunavik are second highest in the world (after Greenland).Almost half of the blood samples of Inuit mothers exceeded level of concern value of 5 µg/l for PCB. Significantly higher levels of HCB and toxaphene in Inuit mothers compared to other population groups such as Dene or Caucasians. Oxychlordane levels up to 0.56 µg/l (Baffin); DDT up to 0.14 µg/l (Baffin); DDE p to 2.2 µg/l (Nunavik); HCB up to p to 0.56 µg/l (Kitikmeot); HCH p to 0.11 µg/l (Baffin); Toxaphene p to 0.74 µg/l (Kivalliq)
2003North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), southern (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni)n/achemical analysis of samples of fresh and rozen whale meat purchased from retail outlets across JapanEndo T, Hotta Y, Haraguchi K, Sakata M. (2003): Mercury contamination in the red meat of whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan. Environ Sci Technol. 37(12):2681-5.http://mounier.univ-tln.fr/rcmo/php_biblio/PDF/4993.pdfRed meat is the most popular cetacean product in Japan. Total mercury concentrations in all odontocete red meats (0.52-81.0 µg/wet g) exceeded the provisional permitted level in marine foods set by the Japanese government (0.4 µg/wet g). The highest levels were found in false killer whale (81.0 µg/g) and striped dolphin (63.4 µg/g), exceeding the permitted level by 200 and 160 times, respectively. On the other hand, mercury levels in all but one mystecete red meat samples (0.01-0.54 µg/ g) were below the permitted level, probably reflecting their lower trophic levels.mercury level on average/maximum: Dall's porpoise: 1.26 µg/g / 2.51 µg/g; Baird's beaked whale: 1.64 µg/g / 6.46 µg/g; pantropic spotted dolphin: 4.72 µg/g / 5.02 µg/g; Risso's dolphin: 5.42 µg/g / 20.3 µg/g; pilot whale: 7.59 µg/g / 23.1 µg/g; bottlenose dolphin: 9.55 µg/g / 22.5 µg/g; striped dolphin: 15.0 µg/g / 63.4 µg/g; false killer whale: 46.9 µg/g / 81 µg/g; southern minke whale: 0.03 µg/g / 0.08 µg/g; North Pacific minke whale (O stock): 0.14 µg/g / 0.54 µg/g; J-Stock: 0.09 µg/g / 0.14 µg/g; Bryde's whale: 0,08 µg/g / 0.22 µg/g; fin whale: 0,07 µg/g / 0.22 µg/g; sei whale: 0,02 µg/g / 0.03 µg/gWith mercury burdens of up to 200 fold of the permitted levels the authors emphasize the risk of chronic intoxication by methyl mercury due to frequent consumption of red meat rom toothed whales. They also note that mercury levels off most toothed whales in Japan exceed the levels found in pilot whales on the Faroe Islands, where consumption of limited amounts (and in the meantime even zero, see Weihe & Debes Joensen 2012) of whale meat is recommended.
2010North AtlanticUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)n/achemical analysis of biopsy blubber samples from male individuals (Gulf of Maine)Elfes C, Vanblaricom G, Boyd D, Calambokidis J, Clapham P, Pearce R, Robbins J, Salinas J, Straley J, Wade P, Krahn M (2010): Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Environ Toxicol Chem. 29(4): 824-834.http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1156&context=usdeptcommercepub&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.de%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Delfes%2Bgeographic%2Bvariation%2Bhumpback%2Bwhale%2Bpollutant%2Bpacific%2Batlantic%26btnG%3D%26hl%3Dde%26as_sdt%3D0%252C5#search=%22elfes%20geographic%20variation%20humpback%20whale%20pollutant%20pacific%20atlantic%22Humpback whales from North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine) were higher contaminated with POPs (PCB, PBDE, chlordane), compared to conspecifics in North Pacific. Contamination with PCB, DDT and Chlordane was twice as high in Northeastern (NE) part of Gulf of Maine compared to Southwest (SW).PCB: NE: 10.0 µg/g / SW: 5.4 µg/g;
2010North PacificUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)n/achemical analysis of biopsy blubber samples from male individuals of eight different feeding groundsElfes C, Vanblaricom G, Boyd D, Calambokidis J, Clapham P, Pearce R, Robbins J, Salinas J, Straley J, Wade P, Krahn M (2010): Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic. Environ Toxicol Chem. 29(4): 824-834.http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1156&context=usdeptcommercepub&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.de%2Fscholar%3Fq%3Delfes%2Bgeographic%2Bvariation%2Bhumpback%2Bwhale%2Bpollutant%2Bpacific%2Batlantic%26btnG%3D%26hl%3Dde%26as_sdt%3D0%252C5#search=%22elfes%20geographic%20variation%20humpback%20whale%20pollutant%20pacific%20atlantic%22Highest PCB and DDT levels were detected in humpback whales off California, while maximum level for chlordane and HCC were found in Alaska. Positive correlation between age and contamination level for PCB, chlordane and PBDE.PCB: up to 2.8 µg/g (Southern California); DDT: up to 15.0 µg/g (Southern California); Chlordane: up to 0.73 µg/g (Western Gulf of Alaska); HCH: up to 0.48 µg/g (Alaska); PBDE: up to 0.25 µg/g (Washington)
2007ArcticCanadamercurynarwhal (Monodon monoceros)decrement in attention, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speed, autism, AlzheimerNorthern Contaminants Program collects data on contamination levelsEl-Hayek, Y.H. (2007): Mercury Contamination in Arctic. Canada: Possible Implications for Aboriginal Health. J. Dev. Disabil. 13: 67-89http://www.oadd.org/publications/journal/issues/vol13no1/download/elHayek.pdfMercury tissue concentrations are reaching alarming levels in some Aboriginal communities. Methylmercury contamination induced neurological defects in humans, e.g. cognitive defects have been detected in children of seaood-consuming communities. Defects in motor function have been observed in both adults and children in Inuit communities. The authors also note the risks for autism and Alzheimer disease. Mercury sources are mainly seals, polar bears, narwhal (muktuk) and caribou, where toxic substances accumulate in internal organs and blubber. Even low-level mercury exposure may induce different but irreparable damage in prenatal, neonatal, adolescent or adult nervous systems.total mercury levels in maternal blood of different communities in Arctic Canada was analysed: Nunavik: 10.4 µg/l plasma; Baffin: 6.7 µg/l plasma; Kivalliq: 3.7 µg/l plasma; Kitikmeot: 3.4 µg/l plasma; Inuvuk: 2.1 µg/l; in other ethnic groups contamination level was significantly lower: Dene/Métis: 1.4 µg/l; Caucasian: 09. µg/l; others: 1.3 µg/l
2004North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)acute intoxicationbiochemical anaysis of whale meat samples: boiled internal organs (iver, lung, kidney) and red meat products sold in Japanese retail outlets.Endo T, Haraguchi K, Cipriano F, Simmonds M, Sakata, M (2004): Contamination by mercury and cadmium in the cetacean products from Japanese market. Chemosphere 54 (11): 1653–1662http://www.marineconnection.org/docs/Contamination1.pdfContamination was much higher in toothed whales than in baleen whales and slightly higher in femals, compared to males. Highest total mercury leves were found in boiled liver, followed by boiled kidney and lung, with red meat having the lowest levels. Contamination levels in red meat of toothed whales exceeded the food security permitted levels by 22 times, while the most contaminated liver sample even exceeded this level by almost the 5,000 fold.total mercury in boiled liver was 388 ± 543, ranging from 0.12–1,980 µg/wet g: Risso's dolphin: up to 645 µg/g in liver, up to 145 µg/g in lung, up to 28.8 µg/g in kidney and 9.21 µg/g in red meat; pilot whale: up to 422 µg/g in liver, up to 63.3 µg/g in lung, and up to 13.8 µg/g in red meat (no data for kidney); striped/bottlenose/common dolphin: up to 1,980 µg/g in liver, up to 164 µg/g in lung, up to 153 µg/g in kidney, and up to 63.4 µg/g in red meat; minke whale: up to 413 µg/g in liver, up to 63 µg/g in lung, up to 13.7 µg/g in kidney (no data for red meat); Baird's beaked whale: 5.30 µg/g in red meatAuthors note that "T-Hg concentrations in the boiled liver were high enough to cause acute intoxication even from a single ingestion". Also for red meat the authors suggest the "possibility of chronic intoxication by T-Hg and M-Hg with frequent consumption of odontocete red meat."
2002North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)n/abiochemical anaysis of red meat samples of nine different small cetacean species, sold in retail outlets throughout Japan.Endo T, Haraguchi T, Hotta Y, Hisamichi Y, Lavery S, Dalebout M, Baker CS (2005): Total Mercury, Methyl Mercury, and Selenium Levels in the Red Meat of Small Cetaceans Sold for Human Consumption in Japan. Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 (15): 5703–5708http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969702001377The authors found: that total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations "in all red meat products exceeded the provisional permitted levels for total Hg (0.4 µg/wet g) and M-Hg (0.3 µg/wet g) in fish and shellfish set by the Japanese government, respectively." The most contaminated sample (Me-Hg) was from a striped dolphin, 87-times above the authorities' safety limit. total/methyl mercury (in µg/g wet weight): Dall's porpoise: up to 2.39/1.95;pilot whale: up to 3.58/1.88 (northern form) and up to 37.6/17.2 µg/g (southern form); Baird's beaked whale: up to 6.46/3.47; spotted dolphin: up to 12.0/3.16; Risso's dolphin: up to 9.7/8.78; striped dolphin: up to 63.4/26.2; bottlenose dolphin: up to 98.9/15.4; false killer whale: up to 81/13.3; The authors note: "The highest M-Hg was about 26 µg/wet g in a sample from a striped dolphin, 87-times higher than the permitted level. The consumption of only 4 g of this product would exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake of M-Hg for someone of 60 kg body weight (1.6 µg/kg-bw/week). ... The consumption of red meat from small cetaceans, therefore, could pose a health problem for not only pregnant women but also for the general population. "
2005North PacificJapanmercuryfalse killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsfeeding of rats with contaminated red meat of false killer whales and minke whales, marketed for human consumption in JapanEndo T,Hotta Y, Haraguchi T, Sakata M (2005): Distribution and toxicity of mercury in rats after oral administration of mercury-contaminated whale red meat marketed for human consumption. Chemosphere 61(8): 1069–1073http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653505004637Toxic burden in the whale meat was corresponding to consumption in adult humans of mercury amounts, 29-times higher than the food security standard allows. Mercury levels in rats increased in concentrations in liver, kidney, erythrocytes, cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata. In a previous study, when highly contaminated whale meat (,980 µg/g) was fed to rats, this led to acute renal dysfunction.red meat from false killer whale contained 81.0 µg/g total mercury and 13.4 µg/g Me-Hg; from minke whale 0.15 µg/g total mercury and 0.12 µg/g Me-Hg.The authors note: "The occasional consumption of red meat from small cetaceans could pose a health problem for not only pregnant women but also for the general population." Authors also compare toxic burden in Japanese whae meat with that of Faroe Islands and conclude that these levels coud cause neurodevelopmental disorders in developing fetuses.
2007North PacificSouth KoreamercuryAtlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Orca (Orcinus orca), small cetaceans (others or not identified), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/abiochemical anaysis of red meat and liver samples of 12 different cetacean species, sold for human consumption in coastal cities of South Korea.Endo T, Yong-Un M, Baker SC, Funahashie N, Lavery S, Dalebout M, Lukoschek,Haraguchih K (2007): Contamination level of mercury in red meat products from cetaceans available from South Korea markets. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54(6) 669–677http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X07000458total mercury was highest in liver of finless porpoise and common dolphin, while in red meat mercury levels were highest in false killer whale, bottlenose dolphin and orca. Most of the products exceeded safety limit of 0.5 µg/g set by South Korean health authorities for fisheries industry and all exceeded health security limits of Japan (0.4 µg/g). While data for PCB and DDT in South Korean cetacean products are lacking, data from Japanese markets are indicating potential synergistig effects of contamination together with mercury are likely.finless porpoise, liver: up to 156 µg/g wet weight); common dolphin, liver: 13.2 µg/g wet weight; false killer whale, red meat: up to 22 µg/g wet weight; bottlenose dolphin, red meat: 23.2 µg/g wet weight; orca, red meat; 13.3 µg/g wet weightAlmost all products exceeded safety limit of 0.5 µg/g set by South Korean health authorities for fisheries industry - and all were higher than the saefty limits of 0.4 µg/g set in Japan. Pregnant women and other vulnerable persons should limit consumption of odontocete products.
2009North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)n/abiochemical analysis of red meat samples of pilot whales and hair samples of 50 Taiji residents.Endo T, Haraguchi K (2009): High mercury levels in hair samples from residents of Taiji, a Japanese whaling town. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60(5): 743–747http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045122Methyl-mercury level in red meat of pilot whales (5.9 µg/wet g) exceeded US safety limits by almost sixfold. Total mercury levels in hair samples of residents regularly consuming whale meat was sixold higher compared to residents not eating whale meat (24.6 µg/g vs. 4.3 µg/g) and twelve times of levels found in Japanese population overall (2 µg/g). Mercury levels in cetaceans significantly higher than in swordfish, albacore or tuna.red meat of pilot whales: total mercury 9.6 µg/g, methyl-mercury 5.9 µg/wet g; striped dolphins: 4.0 / 2.2; Risso's dolphin: 4.4 / 3.1Total mercury levels in hair samples of residents regularly consuming whale meat was sixold higher compared to residents not eating whale meat (24.6 µg/g vs. 4.3 µg/g) and twelve times of levels found in Japanese population overall (2 µg/g). Only two residents (school children) did not exceed the provisional tolerable weekly intake. Maximum hair-mercury levels in Taiji were similar to maximal level in Faroese whaling men (> 50 µg/g).
2005North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/abiochemical analysis of pilot whale tissue samples (blubber, muscle, liver, kidney)Hoydal K, Dam M (2005): AMAP Faroe Islands Heavy metals and POPs Core programme 2004. Food-v Veterinary and Environmental Agency, Report no 2005:2, Torshavn, Faroe Islandshttp://www.amap.no/Mercury burden correlated with the age o the animals and was in adult females higher than in males. In contrary, PCB and toxaphene levels were highest in juveniles. Compared with earlier studies toxaphene contamination seems to increase. Total DDT burden in blubber mounts up to 7.5 µg/g in females and 16.5 µg/g in males. Decreasing trends observed in the 1990s obviously do not continue in the 2000s. HCH, HCB and Chlordane levels were also higher in juveniles compared to adults.mercury up to 2.75 µg/g in muscle, up to 179 µg/g in liver; PCB in blubber up to 28.6 µg/g; Toxaphene in blubber up to 6.16 µg/g, DDT up to 16.5 µg/g, HCH up to 0.06 µg/g, HCB up to 1.13 µg/g, oxy-chlordane up to 1 µg/g, and trans-nonachlor up to 7.07 µg/g
2010North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/ahistological and biochemical analysis of tissue samples (kidney, liver) of 14 hunted pilot whalesSonne C, Damb M, Leifssonc P, Dietza R (2010): Liver and renal histopathology of North Atlantic long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) contaminated with heavy metals and organochlorine compounds. Toxicol Environ Chem. 92(5): 969-985.http://193.146.160.29/gtb/sod/usu/$UBUG/repositorio/10301947_Sonne.pdftotal organochlorine levels in blubber of pilot whales: up to 47.4 µg/g (including PCB: up to 34.5 µg/g), in liver mercury levels up to 351 µg/g; in blubber up to 34.5 µg/g PCB, up to 2.4 µg/g chlordane, up to 6.9 µg/g DDT, up to 0.02 µg/g ß-HCH, and up to 0.43 µg/g HCBtoxic levels of Hg and organochlorine compounds (OC) see in results; correlation between mercury / OC levels and different types of histologic lesions in kidney and liver tissue. All liver samples exceeded levels for adverse health effects for marine mammals at 30-60 µg/g.
1997North AtlanticUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)n/abiochemical analysis of tissue samples (blubber, liver, kidney, muscle)Becker P, Mackey E, Demiralp R, Schantz M, Koster B, Wise S (1997): Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. Chemosphere 34(9-10): 2067-98http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9159906pilot whale and harbour porpoise from North Atlantic had higher PCB, DDT and chlordane levels in blubber than belugas in Alaska. Harbour porpoise showed highest levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT, DDE)…..pilot whale (blubber): PCB up to 17.2 µg/g wet wt, DDT: up to 13.035 µg/g wet wt, DDE: up to 7.118 µg/g wet wt, HCB: up to 0.465 µg/g wet wt, HCH up to 0.02 µg/g wet wt, CHL: up to 0.366 µg/g wet wt, Dieldrin: up to 0.604 µg/g wet wt. harbor porpoise (blubber): PCB up to 22.6 µg/g wet wt, DDT: up to 11.2 µg/g wet wt, DDE: up to 4.9 µg/g wet wt, HCB: up to 1.07 µg/g wet wt, HCH up to 0.152 µg/g wet wt, CHL: up to 1.64 µg/g wet wt, Dieldrin: up to 1.45 µg/g wet wt
1997ArcticUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/abiochemical analysis of tissue samples (blubber, liver, kidney, muscle)Becker P, Mackey E, Demiralp R, Schantz M, Koster B, Wise S (1997): Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace elements in marine mammal tissues archived in the U.S. National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank. Chemosphere 34(9-10): 2067-99http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9159906Beluga whales from Arctic were higher contaminated than their conspecifics at Cook Inlet, but lower than pilot whales and harbor porpoises in the North Atlanticbeluga whale, Arctic (blubber): PCB up to 5.23 µg/g wet wt, DDT: up to 3.82 µg/g wet wt, DDE: up to 2.23 µg/g wet wt, HCB: up to 0.95 µg/g wet wt, HCH up to 0.196 µg/g wet wt, CHL: up to 0.0.075 µg/g wet wt, Dieldrin: up to 0.42 µg/g wet wt. Beluga whale, Cook Inlet (blubber): PCB up to 1.92 µg/g wet wt, DDT: up to 2.35 µg/g wet wt, DDE: up to 1.63 µg/g wet wt, HCB: up to 0.74 µg/g wet wt, HCH up to 0.246 µg/g wet wt, CHL: up to 0.0.077 µg/g wet wt, Dieldrin: up to 0.18 µg/g wet wt.
2009North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)n/abiochemical analysis of hair samples of Taiji residents and samples of fresh red meat from pilot whalesEndo T, Haraguchi K (2009): High mercury levels in hair samples from residents of Taiji, a Japanese whaling town. Mar Pollut Bull. 60(5): 743-747.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20045122Authors summarize: "The T-Hg concentrations in the hair from three donors[total samples size was 50] exceeded 50 lg/g, the level for NOAEL set by WHO. The T-Hg level found in the Taiji whale meat consumers was markedly higher than that 27 observed in the Japanese population overall." The mercury level in hair of Taiji residents was higher
than that of the Faroese whaling men.
Excerpt from the abstract: "The methyl mercury (M-Hg) level in the red meat was 5.9 µg/wet g, markedly higher than the US FDA action level and Cordex Alimentarius guideline level for predatory fish (1.0 µg/wet g). total mercury (T-Hg) in the hair from residents who ate whale meat more than once a month was 24.6 µg/g, whereas the average from the residents who did not consume any whale meat was 4.3 µg/g. The T-Hg concentrations in the hair from three donors exceeded 50 µg/g, the level for NOAEL set by WHO. The T-Hg level found in the Taiji whale meat consumers was markedly higher than that observed in the Japanese population overall (about 2 µg/g)."
2000North PacificJapanmercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)small cetaceans (others or not identified), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/abiochemical analysis of meat samples purchased from markets across JapanHaraguchi K, Endo T, Sakata M, Masuda Y (2000): Contamination survey of heavy metals and organochlorine compounds in cetacean products purchased, Japan. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn 41: 287-296.http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20003011135.html;jsessionid=3A6EC3371144E20166A09A3A3E4441D2?gitCommit=4.13.29Contamination levels in toothed whales were significantrly higher than in baleen whales. The Authors state that "the data indicate that the dietary habit of cetaceans from the North Pacific Ocean could result in consumers exceeding the permitted intake for methylmercury and PCBs:"Average PCB levels in Odontoceti and Mysticeti products (North Pacific minke whales) were 2.80 ppm (n=19) and 0.76 ppm (n=19), respectively, whereas the levels in Mysticeti samples from the southern ocean were below 0.02 ppm. Levels of mercury and methylmercury in Odontoceti products were 2.13 ppm and 1.36 ppm on a wet weight basis (n=19), respectively, whereas the mercury level in Mysticeti products was less than 0.09 ppm.
2004North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)heart rate variability"Examinations at ages 7 and 14 years included blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and its frequency components of autonomic origin, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). Mercury concentrations were determined in cord blood, and in the child’s hair."Grandjean P, Murata K, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Weihe P (2004): Cardiac autonomic activity in methylmercury neurotoxicity: 14-year follow-up of a Faroese birth cohort. J Pediatr. 144(2):169-76https://heinz.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/6281/Grandjean_cardiac_2004.pdfAuthors summarise: "Both low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) activities decreased by about 25% from 7 to 14 years; they correlated well with the blood pressures. A doubling of prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with a decrease in LF and HF powers of about 6.7 % (p = 0.04) and in the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval of 2.7% (p = 0.04) at age 14 years. ... MeHg exposure was associated with decreased sympathetic (LF) and
parasympathetic (HF) modulation of the HRV. Parallel MeHg-related delays of BAEP latencies
may be due to underlying MeHg neurotoxicity to brainstem nuclei.
"
see other studies by Philippe Grandjean & Pal Weihe
2003North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)delayed growth (baby)birth cohortsGrandjean P, Budtz-Jørgensen E., Steuerwald U, Heinzow B, Needham L, Jørgensen P, Weihe P. (2003): Attenuated growth of breast-fed children exposed to increased concentrations of methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. The FASEB Journal 17 (6): 699-701http://www.fasebj.org/content/17/6/699.full.pdfAuthors summarize: At age of 18 months children who had been exclusively breast-fed for at least 6 months weighed 0.59 kg less and were 1.50 cm shorter than those not breast-fed. However, calculated transfer of contaminants from human milk fully explained the attenuated growth. Irrespective of duration of breast-feeding, a doubling of the mercury concentration in cord blood was associated with a decrease in weight at 18 months by 0.19 kg and in height by 0.26 cm. Weight and height at 42 months showed the same tendencies, but the main effect occurred before 18 months of age.
see other studies by Philippe Grandjean & Pal Weihe
2003North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speedbirth cohortsGrandjean P, White R, Weihe P, Jørgensen P (2003): Neurotoxic Risk Caused by Stable and Variable exposure to merrcury from Seafood. Ambul Pediatr. 3(1):18-23
https://heinz.sdu.dk:8443/ws/files/6284/grandjean_neurotoxic_2003.pdfAuthors summarize: "In children with complete exposure data, eight of sixteen neuro-psychological tests showed deficits significantly associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration after confounder adjustment. Variable intrauterine exposure was suggested by disagreement between mercury concentrations in the two maternal hair samples. Removal of the 61 (10%) of the children with the greatest degree of variable exposure had a minimal effect on most exposure effect relationships. However, the effect of the cord-blood concentration on verbal learning and memory was greater after this exclusion. The study supports previous findings from this cohort study that maternal mercury exposure during pregnancy is associated with neuropsychological deficits detectable at age 7 years and that this association is evident in women with stable exposures throughout pregnancy and thus not due to variable exposures."see other studies by Philippe Grandjean & Pal Weihe
2008North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in motor speedanimal test (developmental neurobehaviour) in miceFischer C, Fredriksson A, Eriksson P (2008): Neonatal co-exposure to low doses of an ortho-PCB (PCB 153) and methyl mercury exacerbate defective developmental neurobehavior in mice. Toxicology 244(2-3):157-65http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/18155821Discrepancy regarding neuropsychological effects between Children from Faroe Islands and Seychelles could be attributed to a synergistic effect of PCBs and MEHg due to the mother’s dietary consumption of whale meat and blubber. Authors summarize: "The present study demonstrates that an interaction from co-exposure to low doses of PCB 153 and MeHg enhances developmental neurotoxic effects. These effects are manifested as disrupted spontaneous behavior, lack of habituation, and reduced cognitive functions. These effects occur at doses within the same order of magnitude as reported for exposed children."see studies by Philippe Grandjean & Pal Weihe
2005North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/abirth cohorts, analysis of milk samples taken in three different yearsFängström B, Strid A, Grandjean P, Weihe P and Bergman A (2005): A retrospective study of PBDEs and PCBs in human milk from the Faroe Islandshttp://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-4-12.pdfAuthors summarize: "Compared to other European populations, the human milk had high PCB concentrations, with pool concentrations of 2,300 ng/g fat 1987, 1,600 ng/g fat in 1994, and 1,800 ng/g fat in 1999 ... The PBDE concentrations showed a clear increase over time, and their concentrations in human milk from 1999 are among the highest reported so far from Europe, with results of individual samples ranging from 4.7 to 13 ng/g fat.."total PCB levels in human milk up to 2.3 µg/g fat (highest in 1987, since then decreasing), PBDE level increasing: 1.9 ng/g fat in 1987, 4.0 in 1994 and 8.0 in 1999.
2002North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/abiochemical analysis of breast milk samplesFängström B, Athanasiadou M, Grandjean P, Weihe P, Bergman A. (2002): Hydroxylated PCB metabolites and PCBs in serum from pregnant Faroese women. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (9): 895-899http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12204824different PCB levels in pregnant women strongly correlated with number of pilot whale blubber meals / month: Those women regularly consuming pilot whale blubber reached PCB levels up to 1,300 ng/g lipid weight (median: 560 ng/g), while women with low consumption showed level of a max of 590 ng/g (median: 96 ng/g)10-40 µg/g in pilot whales (compared to 0.31-1.5 µg/g in beluga whales from Canada)PCB levels in women consuming 0-1 blubber meals/ month vs. 2-8 blubber meals/month: 96 vs. 560 ng/g lipid weight and 0.75 vs. 5.0 µg/g wet weight in serum from pregnant Faroese women
2000North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, delayed reaction timebirth cohortsMurata K, Weihe P, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Jørgensen PJ, Grandjean P. (2004): Delayed brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in 14-year-old children exposed to methylmercury. J Pediatr. 144(2):177-83.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X00000606auditory brainstem evoked potential tests (BAEP) with 7 and 14 age children, showed a delay in BAEP correlation with mercury levels in the childrens hairs and their pre and postnatal mercury exposure. Results in 14 year lod children show that these efects are irreversible.mercury levels in cord blood: 22.6 µg/l on average; maternal hair: 4.22 µg/g, child 7 yr: 0.6 µg/g; child 14 yr: 0.96 µg/g
1996North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speedbirth cohortsWeihe P, Grandjean P, Debes F, White R. (1996): Health implications for Faroe islanders of heavy metals and PCBs from pilot whales. Sci Total Environ. 186(1-2):141-8.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969796050942birth cohort o 1,000 children analysed ar age of 7 yrs. Authors summarize: "In one out of eight consecutive births, the mercury concentration in maternal hair exceeded a limit of 10 pg/g where a risk of neurobehavioral dysfunction in the child may occur; the maximum was 39.1 pg/g. Mercury concentrations in umbilical cord blood showed a similar distribution with a maximum of 351 µ g/l. The large variation in mercury exposure is associated with differences in the frequency of whale dinners. ...With an estimated daily consumption of 7 g of blubber, the average daily PCB intake could therefore exceed 200 pg, i.e. close to the Acceptable Daily Intake." [more than 10fold of intake in Scandinavia] muscle tissue of pilot whales: 3.3 µg/g mercury, half of which is Me-Hg; The average PCB concentration in pilot whale blubber is very high, i.e. about 30 pg/g. mercury concentration in maternal hair exceeded a limit of 10
2008North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)birth cohortsWeihe P, Kato K, Calafat A, Nielsen F, Wanigatunga A, Needham Land Grandjean P (2008): Serum Concentrations of Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds in Faroese Whale Meat Consumers. Environ. Sci. Technol. 42 (16): 6291–6295http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es800695mserum analysis in 7 yr old children and pregnant women for Polyfluoroalkyl Compounds (PFC). Concentrations correlated with the frequency of pilot whale consumption and with concentrations of mercury and PCB. The authors note: "One whale meal every two weeks increased the PFOS concentration in 14-year-olds by about 25% and PFNA by 50%."mothers: PFOS up to 0.038 µg/ml, PFOA up to 0.004 µg/ml. Children at age of 5 yrs: PFOS up to 0.026 µg/ml, PFOA up to 0.01 µg/ml.
2008North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)Parkinson's diseaseepidemiology studies within 10 yrsWermuth L, Bech S, Petersen MS, Joensen P, Weihe P, Grandjean P. (2008): Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands. Acta Neurol Scand. 118(2):126-31http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18294341Authors note: "The crude prevalence of IPD and total parkinsonism was 206.7 per 100,000 and 227.4 per 100,000 respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence is twice as high as data from Norway and Denmark. Age at initiation of treatment and the fatality rate did not explain the increased prevalence... The cause of the high prevalence is unknown, but neurotoxic contaminants in traditional food may play a role in the pathogenesis in this population, perhaps jointly with genetic predisposition." no details given
2008North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)Parkinson's diseaseblood and hair sample analysisPetersen M, Halling J, Bech S, Wermuth L, Weihe P, Nielsen F, Jørgensen, P, Budtz-Jørgensen E, Grandjean P (2008): Impact of dietary exposure to food contaminants on the risk of Parkinson's disease. Neuro Toxicol 29(4) 584–590.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161813X08000405Authors summarize: "Current serum concentrations of ∑PCB and related contaminants suggested slightly increased ORs, although only β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was statistically significant. Increased intake of whale meat and blubber in adult life was significantly associated with Parkinson's Disease (PD), thus suggesting a positive association between previous exposure to marine food contaminants and development of PD... PD cases had a much higher past consumption of whale blubber and meat than did the controls."contaminant levels in PD persons vs. control persons: PCB: 14.58 µg/g lipid vs. 13.96 in control persons; HCH: 0.06 vs. 0.04; DDE: 3.62 vs. 3.55; mercury in blood: 9.36 vs. 8.8; HCB: no difference
2000North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/aWeihe P, Hoppe H, Grandjean P (2003): Sustained high concentrations of PCBs in. Faroese pregnant women despite dietary intervention. Organohalogen Compounds 63(389), 392-396.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X00000606In 1998 the Faroese health authorities published an advice for a reduced intake of pilot whale meat. Compared to the 1980s the consumption has decreased by 90% in 2001. While this lower consumption caused a clear reduction in mercury burden, the PBC burden in pregnant women has not been significantly reduced, which means a continuing potential health problem, especially in regard to prenatal exposure.PCB burden in pre-advisory cohort: up to b13.5 µg/g and in post-advisory cohort up to 5.4 µg/g.
2007North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)n/ainterdisciplinary expert meeting (environmental health, environmental chemistry, developmental biology, toxicology, epidemiology, nutrition and paediatrics)Grandjean, P., Bellinger, D., Bergman, A., Cordier, S., Vey-Smith, G., Eskenazi, B., Gee, D., Gray, K., Hanson, M., Van den Hazel, P., Heindel, J.J., Heinzow, B., Hertz-Picciotto, I., Hu, H., Huang, T.T., Jensen, T.K., Landrigan, P.J., McMillen, I.C., Murata, K., Ritz, B., Schoeters, G., Skakkebaek, N.E., Skerfving, S. and Weihe, P. (2008) The faroes statement: human health effects of developmental exposure to chemicals in our environment. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, 102, (2), 73-75http://www.wecf.eu/cms/download/2007/FarOesStatement.pdfKey conclusions: "Three aspects of children’s health are important in conjunction with developmental toxicity risks. First, the mother’s chemical body burden will be shared with her foetus or neonate, and the child may, in some instances, be exposed to larger doses relative to the body weight. Second, susceptibility to a wide range of adverse effects is increased during development, from preconception through adolescence, depending on the organ system. Third, developmental exposures to environmental chemicals can lead to life-long functional deficits and disease." Key recommendations: "Risk assessment of environmental chemicals needs to take into account the susceptibility of early development and the long-term implications of adverse programming in a variety of organ systems. Although test protocols exist to assess reproductive toxicity, ... Prevention should not await definitive evidence of causality when delays in decision-making would lead to the propagation of toxic exposures and their long-term, harmful consequences."no details given, reference to former papers
2007North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)Dental cariesbirth cohort (182 mother child pairs)Jan J, Reinert K. (2007): Dental caries in Faroese children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental oxicology and Pharmacology 25(2): 188–191http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668907001494Authors summarize: "Mean maternal milk PCB concentration was 2205 (range 70–11,150) ng/g lipids. The number of carious surfaces of first permanent molars correlated with milk PCB concentration (r = 0.26, p = 0.01). In multivariate linear regression analysis, PCB exposure was significantly related to caries susceptibility. The findings support an association between children's PCB exposure and caries prevalence."Mean maternal milk PCB concentration was up to 11.15 µg/g lipids
2003North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/abirth cohort (1000 children, examined at age 14)Barr D , Weihe P, Needham L, Davis M, Roman W, Hurtz D, Sclafani A, Thomas A, Preau J, Grandjean P (2003): PCBs and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in a Faroe Island 14-year old cohort: Measurement using new methodology and evaluation of correlations and patterns. Organohalogen Compounds 63: 385-388http://www.chef-project.dk/PDF/Barr_dioxin500.pdfIn 1986-87, a birth cohort of approximately 1000 children was established in the Faroe Islands where whale and fish constitute an average of 55% of all dinner meals. In this cohort, examined at age 14, boys had a significantly higher PCB burden due to longer nursery and higher consumption of whale meat. The authors conclude: "We found a concentration gradient in the more highly chlorinated PCBs among children who consumed blubber at both age 7 and 14 years, those who consumed blubber at only one of those time points, and those who did not consume blubber at all. In addition, we observed a significant difference in PCB concentrations between those children that nursed a longer duration and those who only nursed a short duration."Those children, who were known to have consumed blubber at ages 7 and 14, had higher total PCB concentrations (8,416 pg/g) than those who consumed blubber at age 7 or 14 but not both (6,867 pg/g)or who did not consume blubber at all (5,625 pg/g); however, none of the differences were significant.
2002ArcticGreenland (Denmark)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)Parkinson's diseaseclinical examination and interviewsWermuth L, Pakkenberg H, Jeune B (2002): High age-adjusted prevalence of Parkinson’s disease among Inuit in Greenland. Circumpolar Health: 366-68.http://www.neurology.org/content/58/9/1422.abstractConclusion of the authors: "The age-specific prevalence was higher among men than among women in the age group 65-79 years.... We found a relatively low crude prevalence of PD among Inuit in Greenland (81.0 per 100,000) but the age-specific prevalences were almost at the same high levels as found earlier in the Faroe Islands and much higher than the age-specific prevalences found earlier on the island of Als, Denmark. Due to the small proportion of Inuit aged 50+, the age-adjusted prevalence of PD was high (187.5 per 100,000)."no details given
2004ArcticGreenland (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)Parkinson's diseasebiochemical analysis of plasmaKoldkjaer OG, Wermuth L, Bjerregaard P (2004): Parkinson's disease among Inuit in Greenland: organochlorines as risk factors. Int J Circumpolar Health. 63 Suppl 2: 366-8http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/index.php/ijch/article/view/17937/20413While for PCB burden no correlation to Parkinson`s Disease (PD) was found, the mean DDE concentration was higher in PD than in controls (42.1 and 15.0 µg/l, respectively. The authors conclude that a few epidemiological studies indicate a possible connection between exposure to pesticides and PD.DDE levels in Inuit with Parkinson's Disease reached levels of 273 µg/l, compared with a max of 43 µg/l in controls.
2002ArcticGreenland (Denmark)mercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in motor speedClinical neurological and neuropsychological examination Weihe P, Hansen J, Murata K, Debes F, Jørgensen P, Steuerwald U, White R, Grandjean P (2002): Neurobehavioral performance of Inuit children with increased prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Int J Circumpolar Health 2002; 61(1): 41-49http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/index.php/ijch/article/view/17404/19722Study conducted with 43 Inuit children (age 7-12 yrs) from Quanaaq. Authors conclude: The mercury concentrations were not associated with the age or sex of the child and socio-demographic parameters. However, the hair-mercury concentrations increased significantly with the number of weekly dinners with traditio+G72nal food, especially in the children... In neuropsychological tests reaction time appeared to increase with increasing mercury exposure level. Performance on the hand-eye coordination measure (an error score) was positively associated with mercury exposure, especially the maternal hair mercury concentration. However, authors note lack of significance due to small sample sizeMercury concentration in hair was 5.0 µg/g and 15.5 µg/g in children and mothers, respectively on average, with a max of 18.4 and 32.9 µg/g.
2007North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in motor speedbirth cohort (1,022 children)Budtz-Jørgensen E, Grandjean P, and Weihe P (2007): Separation of Risks and Benefits of Seafood Intake. Environ Health Perspect. 115(3): 323–327.http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/4553350/1849938.pdf?sequence=1Authors conclude that "results suggest that uncontrolled confounding from a beneficial parameter, and imprecision of this confounder, may cause substantial underestimation of the effects of a toxic exposure. The adverse effects of methylmercury exposure from fish and seafood are therefore likely to be underestimated by unadjusted results from observational studies, and the extent of this bias will be study dependent."Authors note: "The mercury concentrations varied considerably, covering a span of almost 1,000-fold. Although mercury exposure in this
population mainly originated from ingestion of whale meat, the log-transformed frequency of fish dinners correlated significantly with log-transformed mercury concentrations in cord blood (r = 0.25, p < 0.0001) and maternal hair (r = 0.26, p < 0.0001)."
2001North PacificAlaska (USA)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/aBecker P, Pugh, R (2001): Persistent Chlorinated Compounds and Elements in Tissues of Cook Inlet Beluga Whales, Delphinapterus leucas, Banked by the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project.https://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov/protectedresources/whales/beluga/pcc_report/nistir6702.pdfLevels of PCB, DDT/DDE, chlordane, HCB, HCH and dieldrin were higher in males than in females. For both males and females, the concentration of DDT compounds in the Cook Inlet animals is much less than has been reported for two other beluga populations (Point Hope and Point Lay). Mercury levels were higher in liver than in kidney tissue; however, the mean concentration of mercury in livers of the Cook Inlet animals was an order of magnitude lower than that reported recently for the Beaufort Sea and Eastern Chukchi Sea stocks.total PCB level in Cook Inlet belugas up to 1,955 ng/g wet mass in males and 1,213 ng{g in females. In contrary in blubber of pilot whale and harbor porpoise, burden reaches a max of 2,670 ng/g wet mass and 5,600 ng/g wet mass, respectively. DDT up to 2,543 /g in males and 1,126 ng/g in females. Chlordane: up to 445 ng/g in males and 279 in females; HCB 412 ng/G in males, 741 ng/g in females; HCH up to 246 ng/G in males, up to 135 ng/g in females; Dieldrin up to 180 and 147 ng/g, respectively; Mercury: up to 11.4 µg/g in liver and 4.86 µg/g in kidney.
1997North PacificJapanPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene) , DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), southern minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesAono S, Tanabe S, Fujise Y, Kato H, Tatsukawa R. (1997): Persistent organochlorines in minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and their prey species from the Antarctic and the North Pacific. Environ Pollut. 1997;98(1):81-9.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15093347PCB, DDT, Chlordane, and HCH levels in Antarctic minke whales were lower than in animals from the North Pacific, whereas for HCB levels were similar. Compositions of chlordane and DDT compounds in both regions were similar. These levels are corresponding with higher contamination of North Pacific waters, but may also depend on other feeding habits of NP minke whales (fish vs. krill).North Pacific = NP, Antarctic = A: PCB up to 3 µg/g wet weigth in NP, up to 0.2 µg/g in A; DDT: up to 3.5 µg/g wet weigth in NP, up to 0.38 µg/g in A; Chlordane: up to 0.64 µg/g wet weigth in NP, up to 0.08 µg/g in A; HCH: up to 0.67 µg/g wet weigth in NP, up to 0.005 µg/g in A. HCB: similar levels in NP and A of up to 0.3 µg/g.
1983North PacificJapanPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)short finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)n/abiochemical analysisTanabe, S., Loganathan B, Subramanian A, Tatsukawa R (1983): Organochlorine residues in short-finned pilot whale possible use as tracers of biological parameters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18 (10): 561–563http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0025326X87905418summary: "Organochlorine (PCBs and p,p'-DDE residues in the blubber of short-finned pilot whale from Ayukawa, the Pacific coast of Japan revealed clear age trends particularly in females. PCBs and DDE increased in concentration up to about 10 years age and declined with increasing age up to about 25 years. Again, after 25 years of age the concentration of PCBs and DDE increased with increasing age. Age-related biological parameters particularly the reproductive parameters are discernible from the organochlorine data, giving credence to the use of persistent organochlorines as excellent chemical tracers in biological and ecological studies of cetaceans."
2000North PacificRussiaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samples (biopsy and from stranded animals)Krahn M et al. (2000): Environmental assessment of eastern. North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus): Lipid and organochlorine contaminant profiles. IWC SC/52/E1Authors summarise: "Although not statistically significant, higher (OC) concentrations were found in males compared to females, thus suggesting the tendency of the mother to shift her contaminant burden to her calf during gestation and lactation. Results also indicated that there was no significant increase in concentrations of contaminants in the blubber with increase in length (surrogate for age). Higher concentrations of OC contaminants were found in stranded juvenile gray whales, compared to juvenile subsistence whales, and were thought to result from retention of OCs in blubber of the stranded animals as lipid stores are mobilised for energy and total lipid levels decrease, rather than from a difference in diet or feeding areas. OC concentrations in various tissues (blubber, liver, kidney, muscle, brain) were similar on a lipid weight basis, except for brain,"contamination levels were highest in a stranded male and peaked in 0.89 µg/g wet wt (73 µg/g lipid wt) DDT, 1.7 µg/g ww (140 µg/g lipid wt) PCB, and 0.66 µg/g ww (62 µg/g lipid wt) HCB, up to 0.69 µg/g ww(62 µg/g lipid wt) CHL, up to 0.34 µg/g ww (33 µg/g lipid wt) Dieldrin.
2001North PacificRussiaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from whales (subsistence hunt) and biopsy samplesKrahn M et al. (2001): Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and lipid profiles in eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). J. Cetacean Res Manage 3(1):19–29.http://www.cascadiaresearch.org/reports/ER-contam.pdfAuthors found sligthly higher (OC) concentrations in males compared to females, thus suggesting the tendency of the mother to shift her contaminant G89burden to her calf during gestation and lactation. "Higher concentrations of OC contaminants were found in stranded juvenile gray whales, compared to juvenile subsistence whales, and were thought to result from retention of OCs in blubber of the stranded animals as lipid stores are mobilised for energy and total lipid levels decrease, rather than from a difference in diet or feeding areas. OC concentrations in various tissues (blubber, liver, kidney, muscle, brain) were similar on a lipid weight basis, except for brain, which had lower lipid-adjusted OCs because the blood-brain barrier limits contaminant transfer."Highest OC levels were found in a stranded male: DDT levels: up to 1,300 ng/g wet weight and 125,000 ng/g lipid weight (mean 450 and 26,000, respectively). PCB levels up 2,450 ng/g wet weight, 250,000 ng/g lipid weight (mean 970 and 56,000, respectively). HCB levels: up to 1,160 ng/g wet weight and 114,000 ng/g lipid weight (mean 350 and 21,000, respectively).
2000ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)decrement in attention, decrement in memory, immuno system depression (frequent infections), hypertension / cardiovescular diseasesreviewUS Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US ATSDR). (2000): Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Center for Disease Control.http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.pdfIn Inuit children acute otitis media was the most frequent health problem during the first year of life, with 80.0% of ever breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode. In humans, PCB burden has been proven to have an impact on blood pressure, hormone excretion, dermal alterations, weakenen immuno response (respiratory trat infections, ear infections), and learning deficits. Multivariate analysis inc etaceans showed that the PCB-blood pressure association was independent of serum DDT levels, age, sex, and weight.Beluga: 1.002 µg/g lipid weight (Arctic Quebec) and 78.8 µg/g lipid weight (St Lawrence)incidence of acute otitis media was increased in Inuit infants of mothers whose diets were based on marine mammal fat. p,p’-DDE showed the highest mean concentration (962 ppb), followed by PCBs (621 ppb; sum of congeners 138, 153, and 180), hexachlorobenzene (107 ppb),
dieldrin (30 ppb), and mirex (14 ppb)
2000North AtlanticPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)decrement in attention, decrement in memory, immuno system depression (frequent infections), hypertension / cardiovescular diseasesreviewUS Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US ATSDR). (2000): Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Center for Disease Control.http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.pdfIn humans, PCB burden has been proven to have an impact on blood pressure, hormone excretion, dermal alterations, weakenen immuno response (respiratory trat infections, ear infections), and learning deficits. In cetaceans multivariate analysis showed that the PCB-blood pressure association was independent of serum DDT levels, age, sex, and weight.Harbour porpoise (Norway): 40 µg/g lipid weight (lw), striped dolphin (Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea): 35.6 µg/g ww and 21.5 lw, respectively ; bottlenose dolphin (US Gulf Coast): up to 93 µg/g lw; sperm whale (North Sea): 4.5 µg/g lw
2000ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)immuno system depression (frequent infections)biochemical analysis of breast milk samplesDewailly E, Ayotte P, Bruneau S. (2000): Susceptibility to infections and immune status of Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines. Environ Health Perspect. 108: 206-211.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1637954/pdf/envhper00304-0061.pdfAuthors tate: "Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80.0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatl exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin... We conclude that prenatal organochlorine ecposure could be a risk factor
for acute otitis media in Inuit infants."
contaminants in breast milk fat: up to 0.73 [µg/g PCB, up to 0.125 µg/g HCB, up to 1.1 µg/g DDE, up to 0.035 µg/g Dieldrin.
1999ArcticGreenland (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/abiochemical analysis of autopsy tissue samplesDewailly E, Mulvad G, Pedersen HS, Ayotte P, Demers A, Weber JP. (1999): Concentration of organochlorines in human brain, liver, and adipose tissue autopsy samples from Greenland. Environ Health Perspect. 107: 823-828.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1566611/pdf/envhper00515-0089.pdfIn the adipose tissue samples of Greenlanders, mean concentrations of PCBs were 3- to 34-fold higher than those measured in samples from Canadians in Québec City, Québec. This makes it the highest PSC burden in the world. Liver, omental fat, and
subcutaneous fat contained similar
concentrations of chlorinated
pesticides and their metabolites, with one notable exception, P-HCH, showing a 4-fold greater concentration in liver lipids than in fatty tissue lipids.
in blubber samples of beluga in 1989-90 PCB levels of up to 5.6 µg/g wet wt were detectedcontamination levels in subcutaneous fat vs. liver tissue: up to 0.33 µg/g and 1.0 µg/G HCH; up to 0.415 and 0.3 µg/g DDT; up to 11.28 and 10.27 µg/g DDE; up to 1.89 and 1.99 µg/g HCB; up to 2.24 and 3.83 µg/g Oxychlordane.
1992ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/abiochemical analysis of samples of breast milkDewailly E, Nantel A, Bruneau S, Laliberté C, Ferron L, Gingras S (1992): Breast milk contamination by PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Arctic Québec: A preliminary assessment. Chemosphere 25: 1245-1249.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004565359290137GConcentrations of PCBs including coplanar congeners, polychloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) were 2 to 10 times greater than those found in milk samples from women living in southern Québec..
1989ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)n/abiochemical analysis of samples of breast milkDewailly E, Nantel A, Weber JP, Meyer F. (1989): High levels of PCBs in breast milk of inuit women from arctic Québec. Bull Environ Contamin Toxicol 43 (5): 641-646.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01701981The milk of nursing Eskimo women in northern Quebec has a higher level of PCB's than that of women anywhere in the world. The contamination level in Inuit women in northern Quebec significantly exceeded the tolerance level of 1.5 µg/g, set by the Health and Welfare Canada Federal Agency.The fat in the milk of the Eskimo women showed an average PCB concentration of 3.59 µg/g, compared with 0.76µg/g for the rest of the samples. Some Eskimo women had a concentration of 14.7 µg/g
1984North AmericaUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)reduced birth weight, immuno system depression (frequent infections)clinical study comparing newborn infants exposed to contaminants and areference groupFein GG, Jacobson JL, Jacobson SW. (1984): Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: effects on birth size and gestational age. J Pediatr. 105: 315-320.http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476%2884%2980139-0/abstractStudy not related to cetaceans, but to PCB contaminated fish: Exposed newborn infants were 160 to 190 gm lighter than controls, and their heads were 0.6 to 0.7 cm smaller. Head circumference was disproportionately small in relation to both birth weight and gestational age.
2003North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)immuno system depression (frequent infections)birth cohort study at age of 18 months old newborn children, cord blood analysisHeilmann C, Grandjean P, Weihe P. (2003): Decreased childhood vaccine response in children exposed to PCBs from maternal seafood diet. Organohalogen Compounds 1(4): 60-65.http://www.chef-project.dk/PDF/Heilmann_dioxin503.pdfThe authors conclude that PCB exposure may reduce antibody production to antigens in vaccination programs, leading to a deficti in perinatal immune function.PCB level: up to 2.15 µg/g lipid in maternal serum up to 2.15 µg/g in breast milk, and up to 2.77 µg/g in maternal hair
1996North AmericaUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speedbiochemixcal analysis of maternal serum and milk; IQ and
achievement tests in 11 yrs old children
Jacobson JL & Jacobson SW. (1996): Intellectual Impairment in Children Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Utero. New England J. Medicine 335(11): 783-789.http://www.nchh.org/Portals/0/Contents/Article0357.pdfArticle not related to contaminants in whale products but in fish: children of women, who were exposed to contamination before or during their pregnancies, frequently present with motor control problems, low IQs, and poor memory. Authors emphasize: "In utero exposure to polychlorinated
biphenyls in concentrations slightly higher than those in the general population can have a long-term impact on intellectual function."
Authors report: "Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls was associated with lower full-scale and verbal IQ scores after control for potential confounding variables such as socioeconomic status (P 0.02).
The strongest effects related to memory and attention. The most highly exposed children were
three times as likely to have low average IQ scores (P 0.001) and twice as likely to be at least two years behind in reading comprehension (P0.03)."
2001North AmericaUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsPersky V, Turyk M, Anderson A. (2001): The effects of PCB exposure and fish consumption on endogenous hormones. Environ Health Perspect. 109: 1275- 1283.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240511/pdf/ehp0109-001275.pdfArticle not related to contaminants in whale products but in fish: Authors state: "Serum PCB level and consumption of Great Lakes fish are associated with significantly lower levels of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine index (FTI) in women and with significantly lower levels of T4 in men." The authors suggest that PCBs may also decrease steroid binding to sex hormone-binding globulin PCB and DDE levels in males higher than in females: PCB 4.7 vs. 2.6 ppb in serum; DDE 4.6 vs. 3.3. ppb
1999ArcticGreenland (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesBruhn R, Kannan N, Petrick G, Schulz-Bull D, Duinker J (1999): Persistent chlorinated organic contaminants in harbour porpoises from the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and Arctic waters. Sci Total Environ 237/238: 351-361http://www.subaonline.net/nakannan/academic/cv/papers/brun1999.pdfAuthors found highest concentrations of β-HCH in the Greenland population, and p, p'-DDT was detected only in this group. Levels of PCB, HCB and DDE were smaller, compared to samples from North and Baltic Sea.median levels in blubber in Arctic waters: PCB: 1.31 µg/g, HCB: 0.13 µg/g, DDT: 0.31 µg/g, DDE: 0.78 µg/g; &#945-HCH: 0.04 µg/g.
1999North AtlanticGermany, DenmarkPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesBruhn R, Kannan N, Petrick G, Schulz-Bull D, Duinker J (1999): Persistent chlorinated organic contaminants in harbour porpoises from the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and Arctic waters. Sci Total Environ 237/238: 351-361http://www.subaonline.net/nakannan/academic/cv/papers/brun1999.pdfAuthors found highest concentrations of α-HCH in the Greenland population, and p, p'-DDT was detected only in this group, while levels of PCB, HCB and DDE were higher in samples from North and Baltic Sea, compared to samples from Greenland.median levels in blubber: Baltic Sea: PCB: 14.91 µg/g, HCB: 0.31 µg/g, DDE: 4.75 µg/g; β-HCH: 0.57 µg/g. North Sea: PCB: 17.01 µg/g, HCB: 0.19 µg/g, DDE: 1.42 µg/g; β-HCH: 0.001 µg/g.
2001North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus)n/abiochemical analysis of samples of muscles and blubber from pilot whale, white-sided dolphin and sealDam M (2001): Analysis of Mercury and Organochlorines in Individual Marine Mammals from the Faroe Islands. Frodskaparrit 48: 145-174.highest concentrations of DDE and chlordane were found in white-sided dolphins, while PCB peaked in seal. Highest mercury levels were found in pilot whale maleswhite-sided dolphins, blubber: DDT: 26.9 µg/g; DDE: 18 µg/g, chlordane: 4.8 µg/g lipid), mercury: 1.47 µg/g, PCB (153): up to 5.13 µg/g. Blubber: Chlordane: 8.06 µg/g; ß-HCH: up to 0.13 µg/g; HCB: up to 0.54 µg/g; toxaphene up to 3.62 µg/g; . Pilot whale, blubber: mercury: up to 5.94 µg/g, PCB (153): up to 4.2 µg/g; Chlordane: 5.9 µg/g; HCB: 0.88 µg/g; ß-HCH: up to 0.05 µg/g; DDT: up to 24.3 µg/g.
2010ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/areviewde Wit CA & Muir D (2010): An overview of temporal trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in the Arctic and possible implications for top predators and humans. Organohalogen Compounds 72: 1392-1395.http://www.dioxin20xx.org/pdfs/2010/10-1529.pdfAuthors state that "Long term studies in air, biota and humans show that levels of most legacy POPs (e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, dieldrin, toxaphene) have declined in the Arctic environment" due to regional and national bans. Authors underline that "Despite the declines, concentrations of PCBs still exceed human health guidelines in some Inuit populations in eastern Canada, on Greenland, and in Russia as well as other indigenous groups in Canada and Russia"Authors summarise temporal trends in Arctic biota.
2012ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)decrement in attentionbiochemical analysis (blood samples at birth and at school age (11 years on average), in combination with behaviour description protocols of teachersBoucher O, Jacobson S, Plusquellec P, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, Forget-Dubois N, L. Jacobson J, and Muckle G (2012): Prenatal Methylmercury, Postnatal Lead Exposure, and Evidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Inuit Children in Arctic Québec. Environmental Health Perspectives 120(10): 1456-1461.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491943/pdf/ehp.1204976.pdfThe study was conducted in Nunavik. Prenatal exposure to contaminants (mercury, PCBs and lead) significantly correlated with observations by teachers regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) in 11 year old school children. The authors assume that this correlation may be even enhanced by other contaminants in cetaceans.Article reports. "Associations with ADHD-type behaviors were observed at cord blood Hg concentrations > 11.4 µg/L."
2012ArcticRussiamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)n/aCommunity-based dietary survey of self reported food frequencies (453 persons, Chukotka), chemical analyses (POPs and metals) of local foods and indoor matters (397 samples)Dudarev, A. (2012): Dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants and metals among Inuit and Chukchi in Russian Arctic Chukotka. Int J Circumpolar Health 71: 18592.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3417677/pdf/IJCH-71-18592.pdf Marine mammals makes almost half of food of coastal Chukchi and eskimos - with whale meat contributing 18.5 % of this (i.e. 19.2 kg/year). Authors state: "POPs in traditional food items are generally below the Russian food safety limits except marine mammal fat". Accordingly, consumption restrictions were recommended for whale and seal fat. While whale meat and kidney consumption recommendations remains unrestricted, for fat a max of 400 g/day and for liver 100 g/month are recommended.DDT in fat of marine mammals (whale, seal): 1.0 µg/g; PCB: 2.0 µg/g; mercury: 0.3-0.6 µg/g; HCH: 0.01 µg/g
2008South AtlanticBrazilPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)small cetaceans (others or not identified)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby), immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptors, cancer (hormone-dependent)biochemical analysis (liquid chromatography and mass
spectrometry) of liver samples from 29 marine tucuxi dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state (RJ), Brazil.
Dorneles P, Lailson-Brito J, Azevedo A, Meyer J; Vidal LG, Fragoso AB, Torres JP, Malm O, Blust R, Das, K (2008): High Accumulation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) in Marine Tucuxi Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Brazilian Coast. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 5368-5373http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es800702kAuthors conclude: "Despite the placental transference, PFOS concentrations were not significantly lower in females than in males. PFOS levels in marine tucuxi dolphins from Guanabara Bay are among the highest detected to date in cetaceans, and this may represent a threat to the small population concerned."PFOS concentrations dolphins from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied between 43 and 2,431 ng/g dry weight as well as 76-427 ng/g dry from other areas
2007South AtlanticUSAPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)immuno system depression (frequent infections), acute intoxication, impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsbiochemical analysis (gas
chromatography/mass spectometry) of blubber samples
Fair P, Mitchum G, Hulsey TC, Adams J, Zolman E, McFee W, Wirth E, Bossart GD (2007): Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Blubber of Free-
Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) from Two
Southeast Atlantic Estuarine Areas. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 53: 483–494
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00244-006-0244-7Authors summarise: "Significantly higher ... mean SPBDE blubber concentrations were observed for . PBDE 47 was the major congener representing ~61% in both dolphin populations, followed by BDE100, 154, 99, 153, and 28, respectively. Significantly higher (p < 0.0001) mean SPBDE were observed in adult male dolphins compared to pregnant and adult female dolphins."Charleston dolphins: 5.860 µg/g lipid; range = 0.429–22.78 µg/g lipid); Indian River Lagoon dolphins: 1.260 µg/g lipid; range = 0.195–3.8 µg/g lipid)
2011ArcticCanadamercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. Among cetaceans Canadian beluga whales showed second highest mercury concentrations in different organs after Faroese pilot whales - with beluga population of St. Lawrence being much higher contaminated than of Mackenzie delta.mercury in brain of belugas: 3-6 µg/g, in liver 2.1-33.5 µg/g, and in kidney 1.5-6.5 µg/gWith 1 µg/l mercury in blood Inuit in Nunavik, Canada, had second highest mercury burden after Greenland.
2011ArcticRussiamercurygray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. For Russia only data from two gray whale populations were available. Mercury burden in specimens from Mechigmenskiy were higher compared to Lorino Lawrentia. However, compared to other cetaceans in other regions burden was much lower.mercury in liver of gray whales: 0.02-0.16 µg/g and in kidney 0.01-0.03 µg/g
2011North AtlanticUSAmercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. For Alaska, USA, only data for belugas and bowhead whales were taken into account. As to be expected, belugas as toothed whales were much higher contaminated than bowhead whales.belugas: 16-23 µg/g in liver and 4.4-5 µg/g in kidney; bowhead whales: 0.05 µg/g in liver and 0.03 µg/g in kidney;
2011North AtlanticNorwaymercurynorthern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. Minke whales in Norway showed highest mercury levels off Jan Mayen, followed by Lofoten and Barents Sea, with populations off Svalbard showing the lowest contamination burden. Compared to conspecifics in Greenland Norwegian minke whales had lower mercury levels.minke whale: 0.7-2 µg/g in liver and 0.7-2.4 µg/g in kidney
2011ArcticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/aliterature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. Compared to other cetaceans Faroese pilot whales showed by far the highest mercury concentrations in different organs.mercury in liver of pilot whales: 75-138 µg/g, and in kidney 15-64.6 µg/g
2011ArcticGreenland (Denmark)mercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewDietz R, Basu N, Braune B, O'Hara T, Scheuhammer T, Sonne C (2011): What are the Toxicological Effects of Mercury in Arctic Biota? AMAP Assessment 2011: Mercury in the Arctic.http://amap.no/documents/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FMercury%202011%20-%20Chapter%20Files&CFID=2652&CFTOKEN=5D534926-10A1-14F5-77BF1523EFB31F43&sort=defaultAuthors summarised mercury levels in different mammals and in humans. For Greenland, data on narwhal, beluga, harbour porpoises and minke whales were considered. Compared to conspecifics in Norway minke whales in Greenland showed higher mercury burden. Belugas in Greenland were less contaminated compared to Canada and Alaska. Narwhals in Uumannaq had lower burdens than in Avanersuaq.mercury in belugas: 1-16.4 µg/g in liver and 0.7-4.2 µg/g in kidney; in narwhal: 6.3-16.3 µg/g in liver and 1.3-2.3 µg/g in kidney; in harbour porpoise: 4.3-8.2 in liver and 0.92-1.3 µg/g in kidney; in minke whale: 1-1.9 µg/g in liver and 0.9-2.7 µg/g in kidney;With up to 50 mercury in blood Inuit in Greenland (especially from Quannaaq) had significantly higher mercury burden compared to indigenous people from Canada (1-12 µg/g), Russia and Alaska (1 µg/g each).
2007ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)interviews and clinical testsDewailly E, Dallaire R, Pereg D, Ayotte P, Fontaine J and Dery S (2007): Qanuippitaa? How are we? Exposure to Environmental Contaminants in Nunavik: Persistent Organic Pollutants and New Contaminants of Concern. Institut national de santé publique du Québec & Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services (eds).http://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/711_esi_exposure_env_cont.pdfWhile concentrations of all legacy POPs have declined since 1992, 14% of women of childbearing age still have level above the concern level set by Health Canada. Regarding polyfluoro-alkyl compounds authors state: "Consumption of marine mammals fat and fish is a source of exposure to PFOS in this population. Other sources of exposure, such as uses of manufactured products containing PFOS, probably account for the concentration measured in this population." Regarding PBDE, authors conclude that "Young adults aged 18-24 years are the most exposed group to PBDE-47, the prevalent congener. Consumption of traditional food is not the source of exposure in the Inuit population." Compared to 1992 levels of total PCBs in 2004 have decreased from 26.978 µg/l in blood samples to 12.818 µg/l; HCH from 0.172 to 0.092 µg/l, DDE from 11.229 to 5.154 µg/l,. DDT from 0.376 to 0.117 µg/l, HCB from 1.416 to 0.685, anc Chlordane from 1.695 to 1.027µg/l. In the 2004 survey, PBDE levels of up to 2.4 µg/l and PFOS of up to 470 µg/g were detected - in men as double as high than in women.
2013North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus)n/abiochemical analysis of scalp hair from residents in whaling town TaijiEndo T, Hayasaka M, Hisamichi Y, Kimura O, Haraguchi K. (2013): Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and mercury concentration in the scalp hair of residents from Taiji, a whaling town. Mar Pollut Bull. 69(1-2): 116-121http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X13000337The authors summarise: "The average mercury concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 µg/g) was significantly higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 µg/g)" - which is a nine fold higher contamination burden. The average age of whale meat-eaters was significantly older (63 years on average) than that of non-eaters (36 years on average). Furthermore, stable ratios of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes were significantly higher in whale meat eaters. Mercury levels (µg/g wet weight) in short-finned pilot whales: 12.4 ± 8.6; in striped dolphins: 5.91 ± 4.04; in Risso's dolphins 3.84 ± 1.52.The Abstract states: "... The average ?15N and ?13C values of whale meat-eaters (10.11‰ and -18.5‰) were significantly higher than those of non-eaters (9.28‰ and -18.9‰), respectively. The average Hg concentration of whale meat-eaters (20.6 µg/g) was nine times higher than that of non-eaters (2.20 µg/g). ..."
2011ArcticCanadamercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/abiochemical analysis of muscle, brain, liver, and kidney samplesLemes M, Wang F, Stern GA, Ostertag SK, Chan HM (2011): Methylmercury and selenium speciation in different tissues of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the western Canadian Arctic. Environ Toxicol Chem. 30(12): 2732-8http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.684/pdfAuthors note: "MeHg in all the tissues analyzed is found to be dominated by
methylmercuric cysteinate, a specific form of MeHg that is believed to be able to transport across the blood-brain barrier. Another MeHg-thiol complex, methylmercuric glutathionate, is also detected in the muscle, and to a much lesser extent in the liver and brain tissues.
Muscle: total Hg 1.54 µg/g wet weight and Methyl-Hg 0.87 µg/g ww. Brain: total Hg 4.13 µg/g wet weight and Methyl-Hg 0.63 µg/g ww. Liver: total Hg 20.2 µg/g wet weight and Methyl-Hg 1.77 µg/g ww. Kidney: total Hg 6.67 µg/g wet weight and Methyl-Hg 0.69 µg/g ww
2012North AtlanticUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsbiochemical analysis of blubber samples of animals from three different sites in US Atlantic (Cape May, Holden Beach, Bermuda) and two sites at Golf of Mexico (St. Joseph Bay, Sarasota Bay)Yordi J, Mollenhauer M, Wilson R, Wells R, Hohn A, Sweeney J, Schwacke L, Rowles T, Kucklick J, Peden-Adams M (2012): Complex contaminant exposure in cetaceans: A comparative E-Screen analysis of bottlenose dolphin blubber and mixtures of four persistent organic pollutants. Environ Toxicol Chem 29 (10): 2143–2153http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.279/abstractDistinct bottlenose dolphin populations may be contaminated with POP concentrations and combinations that "exert estrogenic effects at biologically relevant concentrations". Contamination levels for PCB, PBDE, DDT, CHL, HCB and Dieldrin were highest in Cape May (Atlantic Ocean) and lowest in the Gulf of Mexico sites, with Sarasota being lower than St. Joseph Bay, except for CHL.contamination levels at Cape May: PCB 75.9 µg/g wet weight, PBDE: 3.41 µg/g, DDT: 27.1 µg/g, CHL: 5.26, HCB: 0.062 µg/g, Dieldrin 1.20 µg/g
2001ArcticAlaska (USA)mercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)n/abiochemical analysis of different elements in tissues of beluga and bowhead whalesWoshner V, O'Hara T, Bratton G, Suydam R, Beasley V (2001): Concentrations and interactions of selected essential and non-essential elements in bowhead and beluga whales of arctic Alaska. J Wildlife Disease 37(4): 693–710.http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.7589/0090-3558-37.4.693Total mercury levels in liver and kidney of beluga whales were found at levels that would be considered high or even toxic in domestic species, but known levels in marine mammals. Levels of both merthlyated and total mercury significantly increased with age of animals. Mercury levels in organs of bowhead whales were consistently low, with the highest levels found in liver (0.06 µg/g wet weight).total mercury in belugas: 23.29 µg/g wet weight in liver, 4.97 µg/g in kidney, 1.19 µg/g in muscles and 0.03 µg/g in blubber; bowhead whales: 0.06 µg/g in liver, 0.04 µg/g in kidney, 0.017 µg/g in muscle and 0.002 µg/g in blubber
2009North PacificJapanmercurynorthern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni)n/abiochemical analysis of tissue samplesYasunaga G & Fujise Y (2009): Temporal trends and factors affecting mercury levels in common minke, Bryde’s and sei whales and their prey species in the western North Pacific. Paper SC/J09/JR24 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee Expert Workshop to review the JARPN II Programme, Yokohama, Japan, January 26-30 2009 (unpublished)http://www.icrwhale.org/pdf/SC-J09-JR23.pdfMercury levels in minke whales were significantly higher than in Bryde's and sei whales. Yearly changes in mercury burden were not observed, apart from common minke whales from sub-area 9.mercury levels in muscles: minke whale: 0.22 µg/g wet weight on average with a max of 0.35 µg/g; Bryde's whale: 0.04-0.051 µg/g; Sei whale: 0.049-0.058 µg/g
2011North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, decrement in memorybirth cohort study at age of seven and 14 years, cord blood analysisYorifuji T, Debes F, Weihe P & grandjean P (2011): Prenatal Exposure to Lead and Cognitive Deficit in 7- and 14-Year-Old Children in the Presence of Concomitant Exposure to Similar Molar Concentration of Methylmercury. Toxicol Teratol 33(2): 205–211http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3026894/pdf/nihms-238860.pdfAuthors state: "Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure... lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R at age 14.... The present study indicates that adverse effects of exposure may be overlooked if the effects of a co-pollutant are ignored." With a co-pollution of lead and mercury "adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive functions in childhood were observed,
especially on attention, learning and memory."
Authors note: "The present study supports the existence of adverse effects on cognitive functions at prenatal lead exposures corresponding to an average cord-blood concentration of 16 µg/L."
1980North PacificJapanmercuryshort finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Orca (Orcinus orca), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)n/abiochemical analysis of whale meat samples on sale (fresh, dried and canned meat)Taguchi M, Yasuda K., Kurosawa K, Storro-Patterson R (1980): Mercury levels in whale meat sold in Japan. Paper for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission SC/32/O 11.mercury levels higher than the maximum allowable standard of 0.4 µg/g, as established by the Japanese Ministry of Welfare, were found in all toothed whales, while baleen whales were under the safety limit. The highest level (64.2 µg/g) was found in pilot whales.mercury level: pilot whale 10.7-64.2 µg/g wet weight; sperm whale 0.034-3.25 µg/g; Orca: 15.6 µg/g; fin whale: 0.33 µg/g; minke whale: 0.015-0.265; Bryde's whale: 0.03-0.05 µg/g. The authors also cite from other studies: 51.8 µg/g in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops gilli) and up to 9.43 µg/g in striped dolphin, which is the most commonly eaten dolphin in Japan.
2005AntarcticPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)southern minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)n/abiochemical analsysis of blubber samplesYasunaga G, Fujise, Y, Zenitani R, Tanabe S, Kato H (2005): Spatial and temporal variation in organochlorine contaminants in the Antarctic minke whale, Balaenoptera bonaerensis.http://www.icrwhale.org/pdf/JA-J05-JR14.pdfAuthors state: "Residue levels of PCBs, and DDTs in blubbers of Antarctic minke whales from the Antarctic Ocean were apparently lower than those levels of the other baleen whales from the middle latitude areas. Regional significant differences between the Areas IV and V were observed in PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs levels in mature male of Antarctic minke whales. And also, their HCHs and HCB levels significantly decreased during 1988/89 and 2002/03 seasons in the Areas IV and V."Authors state: "The ranges of concentrations for each compound were, in ng/g fat wt: PCBs, 7.7-89; DDTs, 29-340; HCHs, 0.20-4.3; HCB, 75-430; CHLs, 10-120.
2008ArcticCanadamercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)hypertension / cardiovescular diseasesclinical analysis of 205 adults aged > 40 yearsValera B, Dewailly E, Poirier P (2008): Cardiac autonomic activity and blood pressure among Nunavik Inuit adults exposed to environmental mercury: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health 7:29http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-7-29.pdfAuthors found a deleterious impact of mercury on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) in adults. Mercury burden was related to traditional diet, which is still largely based on fish and whales.Authors report: "The arithmetic mean of blood mercury concentration was 27 µg/L while geometric mean was 19.6
µg/L. Mercury blood concentrations increased with age and were similar in women and men (p = 0.63).
2006Mediterranean SeaItalyPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsFossi C, Holcer D, Maltese S, Fortuna C, Wiemann A, Canese S, De Stephanis R, Mackelworth P & Marsili L (2009): Preliminary results of organochlorines levels and biomarker responses in skin biopsies of the common bottlenose dolphins from the Adriatic sea (Mediterranean sea). Doc SC/61&E18 of the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653506005455Authors found: "Higher levels of PCBs, DDTs and OCs-EDCs were found in male of Adriatic bottlenose dolphins, compared to females from the same area (Fig. 2 a,b,c). The difference in bioaccumulation levels between males and females is likely related to the high capacity of females to excrete lipophylic contaminants during lactation. ... Higher levels of PCBs, DDTs and OCs-EDCs were found in males from the Strait of Gibraltar, compared to those of the Adriatic Sea and the Sicily Channel."DDT: 22,5 µg/g dry weight; PCB: 65 µg/g; Ocs working as endocrine disruptors: 45 µg/g
1995Mediterranean SeaItalyPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) , DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsbiochemical analysis of subcutaneous tissues (skin and blubber)Fossi M & Marsili L (2006): New-tools to investigate toxicological hazard due to endocrine disruptors in Mediterranean cetaceans. Paper SC/58/E23 for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/026974919500037RContaminants increased enzyme induction, induction was significantly higher in response to PBDE, even at concentrations 250 time lower than of Organochlorine compounds, indicating a high toxicological potential of PBDE in cetaceansno contamination levels identified
1998North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from different whale species from different regionsde Wit C, Herzke D, Vorkamp K (2010): Brominated Flame Retardants in the Arctic Environment – Trends and New Candidates. Paper for Sixth International Symposium On Flame Retardants, April 7-10, 2013, San Francisco, Californiahttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002449900482Authors state: "The highest
∑ PBDE concentrations are seen in Alaskan offshore killer whales (3300 ng/g lw), which are similar to what has previously been seen in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands
(up to 3200 ng/g lw). Alaskan
transient killer whales and northern Norwegian killer whales had somewhat lower concentrations (76-790
ng/g lw) but were still considerably higher than has been seen in other Arctic biota, including polar bears (range 40-90 ng/g lw)." ... The authors concluded that "the European Arctic is more contaminated than the North American Arctic."
PBDE levels in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands were 3.2 µg/g lipid weight, the second highest levels in this study
2010ArcticNorwayPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)Orca (Orcinus orca)n/ade Wit C, Herzke D, Vorkamp K (2010): Brominated Flame Retardants in the Arctic Environment – Trends and New Candidates. Paper for Sixth International Symposium On Flame Retardants, April 7-10, 2013, San Francisco, Californiahttp://www.bfr2013.com/abstract_download/2010/upload/90007.pdfAuthors state: "The highest
∑ PBDE concentrations are seen in Alaskan offshore killer whales (3300 ng/g lw), which are similar to what has previously been seen in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands
(up to 3200 ng/g lw). Alaskan
transient killer whales and northern Norwegian killer whales had somewhat lower concentrations (76-790
ng/g lw) but were still considerably higher than has been seen in other Arctic biota, including polar bears (range 40-90 ng/g lw)." ... The authors concluded that "the European Arctic is more contaminated than the North American Arctic."
northern Norwegian killer whales had PBDE concentrations of 0.076-0.79 µg/g lipid weight
2010ArcticAlaska (USA)PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)Orca (Orcinus orca)n/ade Wit C, Herzke D, Vorkamp K (2010): Brominated Flame Retardants in the Arctic Environment – Trends and New Candidates. Paper for Sixth International Symposium On Flame Retardants, April 7-10, 2013, San Francisco, Californiahttp://www.bfr2013.com/abstract_download/2010/upload/90007.pdfAuthors state: "The highest ∑ PBDE concentrations are seen in Alaskan offshore killer whales (3300 ng/g lw), which are similar to what has previously been seen in long-finned pilot whales from the Faroe Islands (up to 3200 ng/g lw). Alaskan transient killer whales and northern Norwegian killer whales had somewhat lower concentrations (76-790 ng/g lw) but were still considerably higher than has been seen in other Arctic biota, including polar bears (range 40-90 ng/g lw)." ... The authors concluded that "the European Arctic is more contaminated than the North American Arctic."PBDE levels in Alaskan offshore killer whales 3.3 µg/g lipid weight, while levels in Alaskan transient killer whales were lower (0.076-0.79 µg/g lipid weight).
2012North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)delayed growth (baby), decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speed, immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptors, Parkinson's diseaseblood sample analysis, neurobehavioural and medical tests in several birth cohortsWeihe P (2012): The Threat of Pollution to Humans – and Whales. Presentation at the Workshop "Hunting and protecting of Marine Mammals, a clash of cultures?", Nordic Committee on Bioethics, 4-5th June 2012, Torshavnhttp://ncbio.org/nordisk/arkiv/weihe-ppt97.pdfOver the last 15 years contamination levels in different birth cohorts were reduced, which is obviously a result of health warnings and reduced intake of whale meat by younger women. Blood pressure increase at 7 years old children The increase already appears at cord blood mercury concentrations below 10 µg/l. Increased frequence of ear infections and reduced antibody responses to vaccinations correlated with PCB contamination. In Adults increased risk for Parkinson's Disease, not related to prenatal contamination, but to lifetime
consumption of whale meat
PCB in maternal serum: cohort mid 1990s mean level 1.12 µg/g lipid, cohort 2007-2009: 0.42 µg/g; DDE: 0.72 and 0.13 µg/g lipid, respectively. Mercury in umbilical cord blood: in cohorts of the 1980s mean level of 22.9 µg/l; in cohort of 1994 mean level of 20.0 µg/l, in cohort of 1998-2000 mean level of 12.3 µg/l and in cohort 2007-2009 mean level of 3.01 µg/l
2007North AtlanticPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)biochemical analysis of tissue samples from coastal waters around Iceland, Norway
and Denmark, and in the German Baltic Sea
Van de Vijver KI, Holsbeek L, Das K, Blust R, Joiris C, De Coen W. (2007): Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate and other perfluorinated alkylated substances in harbor porpoises from the Black Sea. Environ Sci Technol 41: 315-320http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17265965A geographical difference in harbour porpoises was observed with a decreasing trend in PFCs contamination from south to north, with the highest concentrations in porpoises from the Baltic Sea. In all individuals and in all tissues, PFOS was the predominant PFCs, accounting for on average 90% of the measured PFC load. No significant differences could be determined between males and females, nor between juvenile and adult animalsPFOS concentrations were the highest in liver (0.327 µg/g wet wt) and kidney (0.147 µg/g wet wt) tissue, and lower in blubber (0.18 µg/g wet wt), muscle (0.041 µg/g wet wt), and brain (0.024 µg/g wetwt)
2005North AtlanticUSAPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)biochemical analysis of plasma samplesHoude M, Wells R, Fair P, Bossart G, Hohn A, Rowles T, Sweeney J, Solomon K, Muir D. (2005): Perfluoroalkyl compounds in freeranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Environ Sci Technol 39: 6591-6598.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0506556Concentrations of Polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFAs) were determined in plasma of bottlenosed dolphins from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Eight PFAs were detected in the plasma of all dolphins. PFOS was the predominant compound found. um of PFA concentrations were significantly higher in animals from Charleston compared to IRL, Sarasota Bay, and Bermuda. An increase in PFA concentrations was associated with a decrease of blubber thickness in animals from Sarasota Bay and IRL.PFOS concentrations of 0.049 µg/g wet
weight (dolphins from Bermuda) and up to 1.17 µg/g wet weight (dolphins from
Charleston, SC).
2006North AtlanticUSAPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)biochemical analysis in plasma, milk, and urine of free-ranging bottlenose dolphinsHoude M, Balmer B, Brandsma S, Wells R, Rowles T, Solomon K, Muir D. (2006): Perfluoroalkyl compounds in relation to life-history and reproductive parameters in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Sarasota Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Environ Toxicol Chem. 25(9):2405-12.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16986796Overall, blubber thickness of dolphins did not correlate with PFC concentrations in plasma, suggesting an absence of PFC sequestration in blubber. Sexually immature calves (<10 years) were significantly more contaminated than their mothers.calves: mean sigma PFCs, 1.4 µg/ g wet wt; mothers: mean sigma PFCs of 0.366 µg/g wet wt
2011South PacificAustraliaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from inshore dolphins, compared with samples from Mediterranean SeaCagnazzi D, Marsili L, Fossi M, Maltese S, Coppola D, Harrison L (2011): Preliminary results of Anthropogenic contaminants in Queensland's coastal dolphins; levels and toxicological effects. Paper SC/63/E7 for the 63rd Scientific Committee Meeting of the International Whaling Commissionhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969709012248Overall organochlorine (OC) levels in samples from inshore dolphins from Queensland (QLD) were substantially lower compared to samples from Mediterranean Sea. Within QLD samples a simple visual comparison showed that OCs levels are higher in Orcaella heinsohni than in Sousa chinensis and Tursiops aduncus.DDT: 1.2 ng/g lipid weight; PCB 0.98 ng/g
1994North PacificUSAbrucellosisbottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)acute intoxicationimmunochemical analysis of an aborted infected foetusEwalt D, Payeur J, Martin B, Cummins D, Miller W (1994): "Characteristics of a Brucella species from a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)", J Vet.Diagn.Invest 6: 448-452.http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/6/4/448.full.pdfBrucella bacteria may be associated with pathological changes in reproductive organs, These bacteria cause abortion in the majority of infected hosts.first identification of a new Brucella species:" This isolate may be an atypical strain of a recognized Brucella species or a new biovar or species of Brucella."
1999North AtlanticNorwaybrucellosisnorthern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)n/aimmunochemical analysis, 1,386 samples of whales and sealsTryland M, Kleivane L, Alfredsson A, Kjeld M, Arnason A, Stuen S, Godfroid J. (1999): Evidence of Brucella infection in marine mammals in the North Atlantic Ocean. Vet Rec.144(21): 588-92.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10378290The findings suggest that antibodies against the surface lipopolysaccharide of Brucella species are widely distributed among marine mammals in the North Atlantic Ocean.8% of minke whales, 11 % of fin whales and 14% of sei whales had antibodies against Brucella bacteria
2009globalbrucellosislong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), Orca (Orcinus orca), small cetaceans (others or not identified), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)n/areviewCenter for Food Security & Public Health (2009): Brucellosis in Marine Mammals.
http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/brucellosis_marine.pdfBrucella appears to be widespread in marine mammal populations. According to the authors some Brucella infections have been assoicated with placentitis / abortions, neonatal mortality, meningoencephalitis, abscesses or other syndromes, but Brucella has also been isolated from normal tissues and asymptomatic animals. "There are concerns that brucellosis might affect reproduction or echolocation, particularly in threatened species or naive populations."Infection rate: harbor porpoises along the coast of Scotland (33%); harbor porpoises (31%) and common dolphins (31%) stranded along the English and Welsh coasts; bottlenose dolphins in the Solomon Islands (62-80%, varying with the test); minke whales in the North Pacific (38%); and dusky dolphins (78%), common dolphins (50%), bottlenose dolphins (60%) and Burmeister’s porpoises (25%) from the coast of Peru.The authors report: "Rare human infections have also been documented. One marine mammal isolate caused acute brucellosis in a researcher. Three other infected people had no occupational exposure to marine mammals; two individuals had neurological signs, and the third developed spinal osteomyelitis... People who hunt marine mammals may be at increased risk of exposure, particularly when dressing carcasses or consuming raw meat."
2012globalbrucellosisstriped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)n/areviewThakur S, Vaid R, Panda A, Saini Y (2012): Marine mammal brucellosis: a new dimension to an old zoonosis. Current Science 103(8): 902-910http://www.currentscience.ac.in/Volumes/103/08/0902.pdfPresently, three novel Brucella species from marine mammals as B. phocae
(seals), B. phoecoenae (porpoises) and B. delphini (dolphins) are described.
Authors note: "Among the various species of the sea mammals, Atlantic whitesided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) is found to be most commonly associated with Brucella infections, whereas Stenella coeruleoalba, the striped dolphin is reported to be a highly susceptible host and may act as a reservoir of Brucella infection."Human brucellosis, with its historical background in the Mediterranean countries, is known by various names – Malta fever, Mediterranean fever, Gibraltar fever and rock fever. So far, four cases of Brucella infections in humans of marine mammal origins are documented.
2003South PacificPerubrucellosisn/amedical analysis of two infected immigrants from PeruSohn A, Probert W, Glaser C, Gupta N, Bollen A, Wong J, Grace E, MacDonald, W (2003): Human neurobrucellosis with intracerebral granuloma caused by a marine mammal Brucella spp. (Dispatches). Emerging Infectious Diseases 9(4): 485-488.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957978/pdf/02-0576.pdfMarine mammal related Brucella was detected in two men recently immigrated from Peru. Although both persons obviously did not have direct contact to marine mammals their serological tests were Brucella-positive. Clinical symptoms included headaches, nausea, vomiting, and progressive deterioration in visual function.Neurobrucellosis develops in <5% of patients with Brucella infection.
2007North PacificJapanbrucellosisnorthern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), southern minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)n/aserological analysisOhishi K, Fujise Y, Maruyama T (2007): Brucella infection in whales in the western North Pacific and Antarctic: A review. Paper SC/59/DW1 for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.According to the authors "Brucella infection occurred in the examined whale species in the western North Pacific, (ii) a relatively higher infection rate was observed in common minke whales, and (iii) Brucella infection does not seem to occur in the Antarctic minke whales." Authors state: "Low prevalence (9%) of the antibody was observed in Bryde’s whale samples, whereas no antibody
against Brucella was observed in the examined four sperm whales." 35% of common minke whales showed abnormal gonads as observed in Brucella infected animals
According to the authors crews and researchers who have had frequent contact with whales, have no health complexities and no Brucella antibodies were detected.
2001ArcticKanadabrucellosisbeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)n/aserological analysisNielsen O, Stewart R, Nielsen K, Measures L, Duignan P. (2001): Serologic survey of Brucella spp. antibodies in some marine mammals of North America. J Wildl Dis. 37(1):89-100https://www.anthc.org/chs/ces/climate/upload/CCH-Bulletin-No-5-Brucellosis-Understanding-an-Important-Arctic-Infectious-Disease-4.pdfBeluga whales were the cetacean species with highest ratio of Brucellose-seropositive animals, followed by narwhals and bowhead whales. No pathology with clinical brucellosis has been detected in examined seropositive cetaceans.Belugas: up to 35.7% of examined specimens were seropositive for Brucellosis. In narwhals up to 6% of animals were seropositive.In bowhead whales 5.5% of animals showed antibodies against Brucellosis.
2001North AtlanticUSAbrucellosislong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), small cetaceans (others or not identified), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/aserological analysisNielsen O, Stewart R, Nielsen K, Measures L, Duignan P. (2001): Serologic survey of Brucella spp. antibodies in some marine mammals of North America. J Wildl Dis. 37(1):89-101http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/brucellosis_marine.pdfIn US waters only for Beluga whales sample size were large enough to detect Brucella-infections. No pathology with clinical brucellosis has been detected in examined seropositive cetaceans.Of 25 beluga whales in the St. Lawrence Gulf 4 were seropositive for Brucellosis (16%). Negative screenings were done in pilot whale, white-sided dolphin, bottlenose whale, and harbor porpoise (only small sample size)
1990ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)Norstrom RJ, Simon M, Muir DCG. 1990. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in marine mammals in the Canadian north. Environ Pollut. 66: 1-19.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092247In a study of Québec Inuit women, the total concentration of PCBs in Inuit milk fat was similar to that in meat from the beluga whaleone of three beluga samples contained 2,3,7,8-TCDF at levels of 2 to 7 ng/kg
2005North AtlanticGreenland (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/astudy populations of 3,161 adults, comprisi
ng Greenlandic Inuits with people from other European countries
Jonsson BAG, Rylander L, Lindh C. (2005): Inter-population variations in concentration, determinant of and correlations between 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-
153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p’- DDE): a crosssectional study of 3161 men and women from Inuit and European population. Environ Health. 4: 27-40.
http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-4-27.pdfPCB levels were highest and DDE levels second highest in Inuit. Dietary surveys of five Inuit regions indicate that mean intakes by 20- to 40-year-old adults exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intakes for organochlorines, chlordane, and toxapheneCB-153 in Greenlandic Inuit 0.92 µg/g lipid and DDE up to 2.2 µg/g; for comparison: CB-153 and DDE in Swedish fishermen: 0.64 and 0.89 µg/g ; in Warsaw men up to 0.038 and 1.0, respectively; in Karvhik men: 0.13 and 2.4 µg/g.
2000North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercurylong-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, decrement in language, decrement in memorybirth cohort of 1022 childrenBudtz-Jørgensen E, Grandjean P, Keiding N, White R,Weihe P (2000): Benchmark Dose Calculations of Methylmercury-Associated
Neurobehavioural Deficits. Toxicol Lett. 112-113:193-199.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720731Authors summarize: Prenatal methylmercury exposure is associated with neuropsychological deficits in Faroese children at age 7 years... The results of the benchmark calculations depend on the assumed dose-response model. Reaction time and language appeared to be most sensitive to prenatal methylmercury exposure.The lowest BMDLs averaged about 5 µg/l cord blood, which corresponds to a maternal hair concentration of about 1 µg/g. However, most BMDLs for hair mercury concentrations were higher.
2003South AtlanticBrazilPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber of nine individuals from the Canane´ia estuaryYogui G, de Oliveira Santos M, Montonea R (2003): Chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in marine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia fluviatilis) from the Canane´ia estuary, southeastern Brazil. Sci Total Environ 312: 67–78http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12873400Authors note: "Concentrations of organochlorines in the blubber of marine tucuxis from the Canane´ia estuary were lower than levels found in small cetacean species from developed countries, where the input of these compounds was considerably greater than in Brazil. At extremes, male dolphins can present DDT burden several orders of magnitude higher than females."Residue levels of DDTs (0.541–125 mg/g lipid wt.) were the highest, followed by PCBs (0.2–9.22 mg/g lipid wt.), mirex (0.014–0.312 mg/g lipid wt.), chlordanes (0.001–0.047 mg/g lipid wt.), HCHs (0.003–0.044 mg/g lipid wt.), and HCB (n.d.y0.024 mg/g lipid wt.).
2011North AtlanticUnited KingdomPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), brucellosisbottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)n/aimmunological analysisDavison NJ, Perrett LL, Law RJ, Dawson CE, Stubberfield EJ, Monies RJ, Deaville R, Jepson PD. (2011): Infection with Brucella ceti and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) stranded in south-west England. Vet Rec.169(1):14. doi: 10.1136/vr.d2714.http://www.cwtstrandings.org/MSN_Reports/BND_vrd2714.pdfEvidence of Brucella species infection was found in four of eight stranded dolphins on culture. In addition, of the eight dolphins, four were positive and two were weakly positive for antibodies to Brucella species on serological analyses of pericardial and other fluids. In cetaceans B ceti can cause reproductive failure, abortion or weakness and mortality of offspring in the female, and orchitis, epididymitis and sterility in the male. In addition, high levels of PCBs were measured.High or very high levels of the sum of 25 individual chlorobiphenyl congeners (?25CBs) were determined in blubber samples from two of the dolphins (45.5 and 446.6 ?g/gg lipid weight). The latter concentration is the highest level of PCBs recorded in this species in the UK in the past 20 years. Both of these animals were culturally and serologically positive for B ceti.
2008ArcticCanadamercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in motor speedhealth survey for 917 adults, including blood sample analysisFontaine J, Dewailly E, Benedetti JL, Pereg D, Ayotte P, Déry S (2008): Re-evaluation of blood mercury, lead and cadmium concentrations in the Inuit population of Nunavik (Québec): a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 7:25. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-7-25http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-7-25.pdfMercury blood concentrations were mainly explained by age, and the most important source of exposure to mercury was marine mammal meat consumption. The authors conclude that the decrease in mercury exposure could be explained by dietary change. Indeed, the mean intake of marine mammal meat decreased from 28.7 g/day in 1992 to 17.5 g/day in 2004, which represents an approximate 40% decrease. In preschoolaged Inuit children in Nunavik, visual information processing and higher tremor amplitude were shown to be related to MeHg exposure .Mean blood concentration of mercury was 51.2 nmol/L, which represent a 32% decrease between 1992 and 2004. However, the maximum concentration
reached 1200 nmol/L, which is 12 times higher then the maximum recommended concentration. Furthermore, 28% of individuals from the general population of Nunavik and 72% of women of reproductive age were above
their respective recommended blood level (99.7 nmol/L for the general population; 28.9 nmol/L women of childbearing age).
2010North AtlanticMexicoPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni)n/askin biopsy and biochemical analysisFossi M, Urban J, Maltese S, Mazzi L, Coppola D, Casini S, Panigada S., Lauriano G, Niño C., Rojas-Bracho L, Marsili L (2010): First assessment of biomarker responses and contaminant levels in Balaenoptera edeni skin biopsies of Gulf of California (Mexico). Document SC/62/E9 for the 62nd Scientific Committee Meeting of the International Whaling Commission+B140http://iwc.int/index.php?cID=1445&cType=documentHigher levels of DDTs, PCBs, and PAHs (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were detected in the zooplankton-eating species fin whale in comparison to the fish-eating species Bryde’s whale. Higher levels of OCs were detected in the fin whale specimens.DDT in fin whale males up to 3.5 µg/g dry weight (in females 0.4 µg/g); in Bryde whale males with 0.4 µg/g slightly higher than in females (0.3 µg/g). PCB in fin whale males up to 0.95 µg/g dry weight (in females 0.85 µg/g); in Bryde whale 0.3 µg/g in males and 0.15 µg/g in females; PAHs: 2.6 µg/g in fin whale males and 1.3 µg/g in females; in Bryde's whales 1.7 µg/g in males and 2.4 µg/g in females.
2009North AtlanticdiversePCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/askin biopsy and biochemical analysisFossi M, Urban J, Casini S, Maltese S, Spinsanti G, Panti C, Porcelloni, S,Panigada S, Lauriano G, Niño C, Rojas-Bracho L, Jimenez B, Muñoz J, Marsili L (2009): Biomarker responses and contaminant levels in fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) skin biopsies of the Pelagos Sanctuary (Mediterranean Sea) and of the Gulf of California (Mexico). Document SC/61/E17 for the 61 Scientific Committee Meeting of the International Whaling Commissionhttp://iwc.int/index.php?cID=1784&cType=documentThe findings underlined differences in PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, PAH (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) levels and molecular and gene expression biomarker responses between the two populations, revealing a higher toxicological stress in the Mediterranean fin whales. Of particular concern were the high levels of low brominated PBDEs found in the Mexican whale specimens.PCB: on average 8.0 µg/g dw in males (max. 15.0 µg/g) and 2.0 µg/g in females from Pelagos; compared to less than 1.0 µg/g for specimens in Gulf of California. DDT: 6.0 µg/g dw on average in males (max. 15.0 µg/g) and < 1.0 µg/g in females from Pelagos; compared to 3.0 µg/g for males and < 0.5 µg/g for females in Gulf of California. PBDE values, in average, were higher in samples from Cortez, ranging up to 30.506 µg/g dw in females (15.0 µg/g on average), while samples from Mediterranean sea showed lower average levels, ranging from 0.031 to 5.121 µg/g dw.
2003globalPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), chlorinated paraffinsbeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), Orca (Orcinus orca), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsreviewFossi M, Marsilli L. (2003): Effects of endocrine disruptors in aquatic
mammals. Pure Appl. Chem. 75 (11–12): 2235–2247
http://pac.iupac.org/publications/pac/pdf/2003/pdf/7511x2235.pdfEndocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are interacting with the endocrine system. DDT, DDE and PCBs are known for their interactivity with the estrogene household and may effect sexual diferentiation and induce gonadal abnormalities. Such effects have been observed in several cetacean species allover the world, e.g. in Beluga whales from St. Lawrence Estuary (where a real hermaphrodite has been identified), North Pacific minke whales, Dall's porpoises, and bowhead whales (high portion of pseudo-hermaphroditism)Highest mean levels were found in striped dolphins [OC-EDCs = 40.0 µg/g fresh weight (f.w.)], followed by bottlenose dolphins (OC-EDCs = 24.3 µg/g f.w.) and common dolphins (OC-EDCs = 15.0 µg/g f.w.). DDT and PCBs may be a major stress factor for common dolphin populations in the Mediterranean Sea.
2011North AtlanticMexicoPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni), large whale (others or unidentified)n/askin biopsy and biochemical analysisFossi C, Urban J, Maltese S, Coppola D, Panti C, Rojas-Bracho L, Jiminez B, Munoz-Arnanu, Finoia M, Marsili L (2011): Inter-species
differences in biomarker responses and contaminant levels in three mysticete species (Balaenoptera musculus, Balaenoptera physalus
and Balaenoptera edeni) of Gulf of
California (Mexico). Doc SC/63/E6 for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission
http://iwc.int/index.php?cID=581&cType=documentWith regard to the level of contaminants, the highest levels of PAHs and PCBs were detected in the zooplankton-eating species (blue whale) and the highest levels of DDTs and PBDEs were detected in the zooplankton-eating species (fin whale) in comparison to the fish-eating species (Bryde’s whale), suggesting a higher detoxification ability in the fish-eating species. Particular concern can be raised by the high levels of PCBs detected to in the migratory species blue whale, that could bioaccumulate POPs while moving along the Californian coast.PCB: 2.9 µg/g in blue whale, 1.3 µg/g in fin whale and 0.3 µg/g in Bryde's whale. DDT: 2.2 µg/g in blue whale, 3.5 µg/g in fin whale and 0.5 µg/g in Bryde's whale. PBDE: 0.05 µg/g in blue whale, 0.09 µg/g in fin whale and 0.025 µg/g in Bryde's whale
2012North AtlanticMexicoPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsskin biopsy and biochemical analysisFossi M, Marsili L, Panti C, Maltese S, Coppola D, Diaz-Guzman C, Marknez Aguilar S, Urban R. (2012): Preliminary results on eco-toxicological investigation on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the San Ignacio Lagoon, Mexico.http://iwc.int/index.php?cID=2638&cType=documentAuthors note: "The DDTs level were slightly higher in calf blubber in comparison to the mother, despite the PCB concentration are similar, suggesting the maternal transfer of POPs trough lactation… Exposure to POPs (such as DDTs) at early life stages may have toxic impacts on their developing endocrine, immune and neural systems." However, gray whale levels of OCs in blubber are lower than in other mysticete species.DDT: 0.6-0.9 µg/g lipid weight on average (with a max of 1.9 µg/g), PCB: 1.1 µg/G lw on average (with a max of 2.3 µg/g). DDT in calves on average 0.9 µg/g, compared to 0.7 µg/G in mothers
2003North AtlanticPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsskin biopsy and biochemical analysisFossi MC, Marsili L, Neri G, Natoli A, Politi E, Panigada S. (2003): The use of a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorine contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans: new data 10 years after the first paper published in MPB. Mar Poll Bull 46: 972–982.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12907191High concentrations of DDT metabolites and PCB congeners (known as EDCs) were found in the different Mediterranean species. Highest levels were found in striped dolphins, followed by bottlenose dolphins and common dolphins. Levels of PCBs detected in Mediterranean free ranging fin whales in the same period are approximately 10 times higher than those found in the population of bowhead whales in which pseudohermaphroditism and other reproductive dysfunctions were detected.HCB: 39.5 ng/g in fin whales, 180 ng/g in striped dolphins, 90.4 ng/g in bottlenose dolphin and 54.4 ng/g common dolphin. DDT: 4.4 µg/g in fin whales, 11 µg/g in striped dolphins, 9.9 µg/g in bottlenose dolphin and 7.0 µg/g common dolphin. PCB: 3.8 µg/g in fin whales, 9.3 µg/g in striped dolphins, 12 µg/g in bottlenose dolphin and 3.8 µg/g common dolphin.
2003North AtlanticNorwaymercurynorthern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/ablubber samplesGronvik, S (2003): Norway. Progress report on cetacean research, January 2002 to December 2002, with statistical data for the calendar year 2002. Doc SC/55/ProgRepNorwayMercury contamination in minke whales is lower than in Faroe pilot whales; however, at max levels of 0.8 µg/g wet weight have been measured. The latest minke whale catches from the North Sea and the Spitsbergen had considerably higher total mercury concentrations than the early catches. These variations are likely to be associated with biological aspects (age and sex) and variations in the migratory pattern. The authors note: "Especially for the Spitsbergen material it is notable to report that the latest catches in June had significantly higher total mercury concentrations than minke whales caught one month earlier. It is possible that we here examine minke whales with different origin."Mercury concentraion was on average 0,28 µg/g wet weight (North Sea), 0,34 µg/g ww (Jan Mayen), 0,14 µg/g ww (Barents Sea) and 0,25 µg/g ww (Spitsbergen).
2009North AtlanticDenmarkPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorssemen and blood sample analysisNordström Joensen U, Bossi R, Leffers H, Jensen A, Skakkebæk N, Jørgensen N (2009): Do Perfluoroalkyl Compounds Impair Human Semen Quality? Environmental Health Perspectives 117 (6): 923-927.http://www.forcetechnology.com/NR/rdonlyres/505C77C9-7557-4FAD-A242-9CC54BB92A49/0/EHP_perfluoroalkylcompounds_2009.pdfYoung men in mainland Denmark were surveyed. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. Men with high combined levels of PFOS and PFOA had a median of 6.2 million normal spermatozoa in their ejaculate in contrast to 15.5 million among men with low PFOS–PFOA.Authors report: "The median perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) concentrations for all 105 of the men were 24.5, 4.9, and 6.6 ng/mL."
2006North PacificJapanPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/aKajiwara N, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian A, Lam PK, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S. (2006): Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere 64(2):287-95
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439003Contaminants were analysed in finless, harbour and Dall's porpoise, Pacific white-sided dolphin, and beaked whale. Compared to other cetaceans and other regions the amounts of PCB, DDT, CHL, and HCH were highest in finless porpoises from Seto Inland Sea. No difference in PBDE levels between coastal and offshore species from Japan was observed, implying the existence of pollution sources in this region other than Japan. Concentrations of PBDEs were were second highest in Japan, after Hong Kong.PBDE: highest levels found in in finless porpoise (up to 1.3 µg/g lipid weight) and white-sided dolphins (up to 1.2 µg/g lw). PCB: By far highest levels were detected in finless porpoises from Seto Inland Sea (370 µg/g lw) while for other tested species max levels were 3.0-45.0 µg/g lw. DDT: By far highest levels were detected in finless porpoises from Seto Inland Sea (270 µg/g lw), followed by Stejneger’s beaked whale (140.0 µg/g lw) while for other tested species max levels were 5.0-52.0 µg/g lw. CHL: up to 60.0 µg/g in finless porpoises from Seto Inland Sea, while for other tested species max levels were 1.5-6.8 µg/g lw. HCH: up to 14.0 µg/g in finless porpoises from Seto Inland Sea, while for other tested species max levels were 0.25-3.5 µg/g lw. HCB: was highest in white-sided dolphins and Stejneger’s beaked whale (1.1 µg/g lw each).
2006Indian OceanIndiaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/aKajiwara N, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian A, Lam PK, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S. (2006): Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere 64(2):287-95
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439004Humpback and spinner dolphins in Indian waters were surveyed; both species had similar contamination levels. Compared to several small cetaceans in North Pacific locations concentrations of PBDEs in spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) from India were at a low value of 6.0 ng/g lipid.PBDE: up to 0.012 µg/g lipid weight. PCB: up to 2.6 µg/g lw. DDT: up to 84 µg/g lw. CHL: up to 0.22 µg/g lw. HCH: up to 0.34 µg/g lw. HCB: up to 0.042 µg/g lw.
2006North PacificChina (Hong Kong)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/aKajiwara N, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian A, Lam PK, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S. (2006): Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere 64(2):287-95
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439005Finless porpoises and humpback dolphins off Hong Kong were surveyed, with the latter one being higher contaminated with all toxic substances. Concentrations of PBDEs and DDTs were highest in Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) from Hong Kong.PBDE: 6.0 µg/g lipid weight in humpback dolphin vs. 0.98 µg/g in Finless porpoise. PCB: 83.0 vs. 23.0 µg/g lw. DDT: 470.0 vs. 260.0 µg/g lw. CHL: 6 vs.1.9 µg/g lw. HCH: 2.2 vs. 0.86 µg/g lw. HCB: 0.43 vs. 0.28 µg/g lw.
2006North PacificPhilippinesPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/aKajiwara N, Kamikawa S, Ramu K, Ueno D, Yamada TK, Subramanian A, Lam PK, Jefferson TA, Prudente M, Chung KH, Tanabe S. (2006): Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters. Chemosphere 64(2):287-95
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16439006Spinner dolphins off the Philippines were surveyed. The Philippine dolphins showed second lowest contamination levels, with only small cetaceans from Indian waters being less contaminated.PBDE: up to 0.064 µg/g lipid weight. PCB: up to 5.4 µg/g lw. DDT: up to 17.0 µg/g lw. CHL: up to 0.92 µg/g lw. HCH: up to 0.19 µg/g lw. HCB: up to 0.43 µg/g lw.
2012North AtlanticFrancePCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)n/abiochemical analysis of lung, liver, muscle, kidney, and blubber tissue of stranded animalsWafo E, Risoul V, Schembri T, Chacha M, Lagadec V, Dhermain V, Portugal H (2012): Current statue of contamination of dolphins from the French Mediterranean coastal environment (2007-2009) in PCBS and DDTs. AHU J. of Engineering & Applied Sciences 4 (2): 21-34.
http://www.alhosnu.ae/WS/Site/Academics/Publications/AlHosn-Journal-Volume-4--Number-2.pdfThe authors note: "Compared to previous studies concerning the Mediterranean Sea, the findings in recently stranded dolphins confirmed the tendency to a decrease of the contamination by organic compounds for the cetaceans in the Western Mediterranean Sea... The levels for both total PCBs and total DDTs were higher for young dolphins than for adult ones."In blubber of Stenella coeruleoalba PCB levels of 2.052-159 µg/g and DDT levels of 1.12- to 45.8 µg/g for DDTs. The ratios DDE/tDDTs were higher than 80% in almost all samples. PCB levels in two bottlenose dolphins even reached 264.6 µg/g.
2012North AtlanticFrancedieldrinstriped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptors, cancer (hormone-dependent)biochemical analysis of lung, liver, muscle, kidney, and blubber tissue of stranded animalsWafo E, Chacha M, Risoul V, Schembri T, Dhermain V, Portugal H (2012): Chlorinated pesticides in the bodies of dolphins of the French Mediterranean coastal environment. AHU J. of Engineering & Applied Sciences 4 (2): 35-46.http://www.alhosnu.ae/WS/Site/Academics/Publications/AlHosn-Journal-Volume-4--Number-2.pdfIn general, levels of organic compounds in the organs of dolphins have been found rather heterogeneous and might vary significantly from one individual to another. Some organic compounds, like lindane or dieldrin, associated with many other toxic compounds have led to the suppression of immune defense, the modulation of reproduction, and the induction of tumors. Levels of contaminants measured in the study were likely to contribute
significantly to the strandings.
Authors summarize: "In the blubber, dieldrin was generally the most abundant compound (215.3 ± 290.3 ng/g lw), followed by Endrin (207.7 ± 217.5ng/g lw); heptachlor-epoxid (106,6 ± 107.1 ng/g lw); endosulfan I (46,6 ± 32.8 ng/g lw); lindane (16,6 ± 12.1 ng/g lw); Aldrin (11,9 ± 8.4 ng/g lw) and heptachlor (6,7 ± 4.2 ng/glw)."
2007North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speed, immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorscohort studiesGrandjean P, Bellinger D, Bergman A, Cordier S, Davey-Smith G, Eskenazi B, Gee D, Gray K, Hanson M, van den Hazel P, Heindel J, Heinzow B, Hertz-Picciotto I, HU H, Huang T, Jensen T, Landrigan P, McMillen I, Murata K, Ritz B, Schoeters G, Skakkebæk N, Skerfving S, Weihe P (2007): The Faroes Statement: Human Health Effects of Developmental Exposure to Chemicals in Our Environment. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 102: 73–75.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/74573/j.1742-7843.2007.00114.x.pdf?sequence=1The authors summarise: "Three aspects of children’s health are important in conjunction with developmental toxicity risks. First, the mother’s chemical body burden will be shared with her foetus or
neonate, and the child may, in some instances, be exposed to larger doses relative to the body weight. Second, susceptibility to a wide range of adverse effects is increased during development,from preconception through adolescence, depending on the organ system. Third, developmental exposures to environmental chemicals can lead to life-long functional deficits and disease."
The authors conclude: "The accumulated research evidence suggests that prevention efforts against toxic exposures to environmental chemicals should focus on protecting the embryo, foetus and small child as highly vulnerable populations. Given the ubiquitous exposure to many environmental chemicals, there needs to be renewed efforts to prevent harm... Prevention should not await definitive evidence of causality when delays in decision-making would lead to the propagation of toxic exposures and their long-term, harmful consequences."
2001North AtlanticGermanyPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)n/abiochemical analsysis of blubber samplesVetter W, Klobes U, Luckas B (2001): Distribution and levels of eight toxaphene congeners in different tissues of marine mammals, birds and cods livers. Chemosphere 43: 611-621.http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.researchgate.net%2Fpublication%2F11965189_Distribution_and_levels_of_eight_toxaphene_congeners_in_different_tissues_of_marine_mammals_birds_and_cod_livers%2Ffile%2F9fcfd50d1f27077f63.pdf&ei=wh--UcCFFsbVtAa9rIHoDw&usg=AFQjCNHZ8NefcpiqwrHjb535n2p8hdJXRg&bvm=bv.47883778,d.Yms&cad=rjaEight different congeners of toxaphene were analysed in different marine mammals in the North Sea, including pilot whales, beaked dolphins and harbour porpoises. B8-1413 (octachlorobornane) and B9-1679 (nonachlorobornane) were the most abundant congeners, contribution of the other congeners varied significantly among different species.Congeners B8-1413 (octachlorobornane) and B9-1679 (nonachlorobornane) were highest in blubber of both pilot whales and white-beaked dolphins. In harbour porpoises B9-1679 was the predominant congener.
1996ArcticCanadadieldrin, Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/aMuir DC, Ford CA, Rosenberg B, Norstrom RJ, Simon M, Béland P. (1996): Persistent organochlorines in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St Lawrence River estuary--I. Concentrations and patterns of specific PCBs, chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environ Pollut. 93(2):219-34.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15091361Authors note: "Major individual components (mean concentrations > 1 microg g(-1)) were 4,4'-DDE, -DDD and -DDT, T12 (a toxaphene-related compound), trans-nonachlor, oxy-chlordane, mirex, HCB, tris(p-chlorophenyl) methane and dieldrin. SigmaDDT, PCBs (as Aroclor), mirex and T12 concentrations were positively correlated with age of adult females (> 10 years) but only weakly, or not significantly, correlated with age of adult males."SigmaPCBs: 8.3-412 µg/g, SigmaDDT: 3.36-389 µg/g. mirex: 0.18-6.8 µg/g. Dibenzo-dioxins/furans were present at low ng/kg levels
1992ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane)narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber and liver samplesMuir D, Ford C, Grift N, Stewart R, Bidleman T (1992): Organochlorine contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) from the Canadian Arctic. Environ Pollut. 75(3):307-16http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15092019Authors summarise: "Mean ∑PCB concentrations in narwhal were 6- to 15-fold lower than in dolphins from the Canadian east coast and belugas from the St Lawrence River estuary, respectively, while PCC levels were from 4- to about 2-fold lower, and ∑HCH, dieldrin and ∑CBz differed by <2-fold. The pattern of organochlorines in narwhal tissues suggests they are exposed to proportionally more volatile compounds, and may have less capacity to metabolize some of these compounds, relative to odontocetes living nearer sources of these contaminants"Polychlorinated camphenes (PCCs) were the predominate organochlorines in narwhal blubber, ranging in concentration from 2.99 to 13.2 µg/g wet wt in males and 1.90-8.39 µg/g in females. Total PCB concentrations in blubber ranged from 2.25 to 7.29 µg/g in males and from 0.894 to 5.71 µg/g in females.
2003North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby), decrement in attention, delayed reaction time, decrement in language, decrement in memory, decrement in motor speedcohort studiesWeihe P, Hoppe HW, Grandjean P:
Sustained high concentrations of PCBs in Faroese pregnant women despite dietary intervention. Organohalogen Comp 2003; 63: 389-92. 23rd International Symposium on Halogenated Environmental Organic Pollutants and POPs, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, August 24-29, 2003.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653505002109In August 1998, the Faroese health authorities advised women to reduce their intake of pilot whale meat and blubber to protect the fetus against adverse effects from these food contaminants. The present study analysed PCB levels before and after advice. The authors conclude: "The results from the dietary survey also showed a very significant reduction in whale meat intake, and blood analysis shows a corresponding reduction in the mercury concentration levels. This observation suggests that the dietary change recorded is likely to be true. However, the PCB concentrations remain to be high and must be considered to be a continuing potential health problem in the Faroese community, especially in regard to prenatal exposure."Before health advide (1994) total PCB levels in women ranged from 0.069 to 13.50 µg/g with a mean value of 1.296 µg/g lipid. After advice (2000) levels were reduced to the range of 0.044-5.431 µg/g with a mean level of 1.06 µg/g,
2006North AtlanticUSAmercurybottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)n/aanalysis of blood and epidermal biopsiesWoshner V, Knott K, Wells R, Willetto C, Swor R, O’Hara T (2006): Mercury and Selenium in Blood of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): Interaction and Reference to Life History and Hematologic Parameters. Ecohealth 5(3):360-70.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19165553Epidermal concentrations of mercury and selenium reflect their respective amounts in blood, albeit at several times blood concentrations of mercury.Total mercury levels were 702 µg/l in females and 389 µg/g in males on average. Maximum total mercury concentration in blood was 1,600 µg/l, and methyl mercury in blood ranged from 90.5 to 2,262,75 µg/l
2005North AtlanticUSAmercuryn/abiochemical analysis of blood samplesTrasande L, Landrigan P, Schechter C. (2005): Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain. Environ Health Perspect 113(5):590-6.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15866768Exposure results principally from consumption by pregnant women of seafood contaminated by mercury from anthropogenic (70%) and natural (30%) sources... Between 316,588 and 637,233 children each year have cord blood mercury levels > 5.8 µg/l, a level associated with loss of IQ Similar cohort studies in the Faroes and New Zealand support the conclusion that developmental effects become apparent at levels of approximately 1 ppm mercury in hair, or 5.8 µg/L in cord blood). The resulting loss of intelligence causes diminished economic productivity that persists over the entire lifetime of these children.Using national blood mercury prevalence data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we found that between 316,588 and 637,233 children each year have cord blood mercury levels > 5.8 µg/l.
2008globalmercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)n/aGrandjean P, Weihe P (2008): Developmental Origins of Environmentally Induced Disease
and Dysfunction. International Conference on Foetal Programming and Developmental Toxicity
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, 20–24 May, 2007. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 102: 71–72
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2007.00169.x/fullAuthors conclude: "The conference demonstrated that developmental programming is a crucial issue to
consider in research and prevention, for five reasons:
1 There are critical periods of foetal development. Effects of chemical, physical and biological influences will differ, often dramatically, depending on the timing of exposure.
2 Foetal programming produces long-term and typically permanent changes.
3 While maternal, foetal and placental mechanisms compensate for disturbances
in the foetal environment, compensation may also produce secondary (typically
negative) effects.
4 Continued postnatal exposure and compensation may have further deleterious effects.
5 Effects of the environment on the foetus are often different from those on adults
or even infants, and the effects may differ between males and females."
for details see http://www.pptox.dk/Programme/tabid/68/Default.html
1998North AtlanticNorwayPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesKleivane L, Skaare J (1998): Organochlorine contaminants in northeast Atlantic minke whales
(Balaenoptera acutorostrata): Environ Pollut 101: 231-239.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15093085Significantly higher concentrations of the three major pollutants (sigmaPCB, sigmaDDT and CHL) were found in mature males as compared to mature females and juveniles of both sexes. Compared to minke whales from southern hemisphere organochlorine components in northern hemisphere were all significantly higher: for PCB and HCH by factor 100, for DDT and Chlordane by factor 40 and twice levels for HCB.Minke whale: PCB up to 20.76 µg/g lipid weight,DDT up to 14.76 µg/g, CHL up to 5.07 µg/g, HCH up to 0.39 µg/g and HCB up to 0.38µg/g. The chlordane metabolites oxychlordane, cis-chlordane and trans-nonachlor, and the HCH isomers (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH) were all < 1 µg/g lw. Harbour porpoise: PCB up to 44.02 µg/g lipid weight,DDT up to 36.18 µg/g, CHL up to 5.51 µg/g, HCH up to 0.63 µg/g and HCB up to 1.25 µg/g.
1986AntarcticPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)southern minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)n/aTanabe, S., Miura, S., Tatsukawa, R., 1986. Variation of organochlorine
residues with age and sex in antarctic minke whale. National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo. Memoirs. Special Issue 44: 174-181.
http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110000010178/enImmature southern minke whales carried higher concentration ratios of DDEs to PCBs in their tissues than mature
specimens, due to different feeding strategies: Immature minke whales did not only feed only on euphausiids, but also on copepods and fish, which contain higher levels of contaminants. Levels in mature females were lower than in males, probably due to the lactational excretions of organochlorine components.
PCB: 0.0031-0.29 µg/g wet weight. DDE: 0.013-0.140 µg/g ww
1993North AtlanticUSADDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesBorrell A, Aguilar A (1987): Variations in DDE percentage correlated with total DDT burden in the blubber of fin and sei whales. Marine Poll Bull 18: 70-74.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0025326X87905704Total DDT burden and DDE percentage (DDE/DDT+TDE+DDE) in the blubber of fin and sei whales are highly correlated. Relatively low levels of organochlorine components in sei and fin whale compared to northern minke whale (10- and two-fold lower) are considered to be a result of their feeding on less contaminated planctonic crustaceans.fin whale: mean DDE 34.2 µg/g; DDT 1.145 µg/g. Sei whale: mean DDE 29.88 µg/g; DDT 0.447 µg/g.
2009ArcticCanadaPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds), dieldrin, HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)reduced birth weight, delayed growth (baby)biochemical analysis of liver samplesKelly B, Ikonomou M, Blair J, Surridge B, Hoover D, Grace R, Gobas F (2009): Perfluoroalkyl Contaminants in an Arctic Marine Food Web: Trophic Magnification and Wildlife Exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43 (11): 4037–4043.http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es9003894?journalCode=esthagAmong other species beluga whales from Eastern Hudson Bay were analysed. PFCs were shown highly bioaccumulative in this Arctic marine food web. However, unlike lipophilic POPs, PFCs exhibited no biomagnification in aquatic organisms of the food web. The results show that
biomagnification and persistence of PFCs residues in Arctic beluga whales and subsequent maternal transfer to nursing
calves (via milk), results in an elevated risk of potential developmental impacts in those animals.
Five different PBDE congeners were detected with 0.01-0.5 ng/g wet weight each. HCH: 0.5 ng/g, PCB: 9 ng/g. Dieldrin: 10 ng/g. HCB: 10 ng/g. DDE: 11 ng/g
1995North AtlanticFaroe Islands (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas)n/acohort study of breast feeding women (analysis of cord blood and milk)Grandjean P, Weihe P, Needham L, Burse V, Patterson D, Sampson E, Jørgensen P, Vahter M. (1995): Relation of a seafood diet to mercury, selenium, arsenic, and polychlorinated biphenyl and other organochlorine concentrations in human milk. Environ Res. 71(1):29-38.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8757236PCB levels measured were significantly higher than milk samples from other parts of Europe, while mercury levels were similar. Milk mercury concentrations (median, 2.45 micrograms/liter) were significantly associated with mercury concentrations in cord blood and with the frequency of pilot whale dinners during pregnancy. The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were high and mainly due to congener numbers 153, 180, and 138. The highest PCB concentrations were seen in the pools from women who had eaten frequent whale dinners and whose milk contained high mercury concentrationsmercury concentrations in milk: 2.45 µg/l, PCB: 1.8-3.5 µg/l .One PCB pool contained a congener 77 concentration of 1,380 µg/g, which is the highest ever reported in a human specimen for a coplanar PCB.
1976ArcticAlaska (USA)mercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/abiochemical analysis of cord and maternal blood, placenta, hair and milkGalster W (1976): Mercury in Alaskan Eskimo mothers and infants. Environ Health Perspect. 15: 135–140http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475170/pdf/envhper00490-0134.pdf38 maternal-infant pairs from Anchorage and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were examined. Placenta and mothers' hair are poor indicators for mercury burden, while fetal cord blood is the best indicator.Depending on mothers' diet during pregnancy (portion of seal - and presumably whale - oil and meat) mercury levels in mothers reached up to 60.6 ng/ml blood and in infants 112.4 ng/ml.
2008South PacificCosta Ricabrucellosisstriped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)n/aimmunohistochemical and serologic tests, samples from stranded animalsHernández-Mora G, González-Barrientos R, Morales J, Chaves-Olarte E, Guzmán-Verri C, Baquero-Calvo E, De-Miguel M, Marín C, Blasco J, Moreno E (2008): Neurobrucellosis in Stranded Dolphins, Costa Rica. Emerg Infect Dis. 14(9):1430-3http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/14/9/pdfs/07-1056.pdfWith regards to the high infection rate compared to other cetacean species, the authors call attention to possible increased susceptibility of this species to neurobrucellosis. The isolation of B. ceti from milk, fetal tissues, and secretions of a pregnant dolphin documents vertical transmission and the possibility of horizontal transmission to newborns.All 10 dolphins had antibodies against Brucella, in 6 dolphins, Brucella organisms were detected, identified as B. ceti type I.
2008ArcticGreenland (Denmark)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros), bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptors, diabetes (type 2), arteriosclerosis, hypertension / cardiovescular diseasesreviewHansen J, Deutch B, Odland J (2008): Dietary transition and contaminants in the Arctic: emphasis on Greenland. Circumpolar Health Supplements 2.http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/public/journals/32/chs/CHS_2008_2.pdfThe multiple regression analysis applied in this study demonstrates that the main predictors of a high human burden of POPs are age, ‘district, plasma phospolipid concentration of n-3 FA and smoking status. Gender is also a predictor, but mainly in the larger towns, where women appear to eat a more ‘westernized’ diet, resulting in lower contaminant intakes. Authors give an overview on diseases which are linked to contaminants, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arterosclerosis etc..Levels of both mercury and several POP contaminants in certain groups of humans in Greenland exceed international safety guidelnes.
1995globalPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)immuno system depression (frequent infections)literature reviewHall A, Schwacke L, Kershaw J, McConnell B, Rowles T (2012): An Individual Based Modelling Approach to Investigate the Impact of Pollutants on Cetacean Population Dynamics – Effects on Calf Survival and Immunity. Doc SC/64/E5 for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/P MC1519269/Several in vitro and in vivo studies on PBC effects in cetaceans resulted in unclear and partially even controversial results, e.g. whether lymphocyte proliferation is increasing or decreasing in response to PCB burden.Simulation models showed significant decrease of population growth (due to calf mortality) already at annual accumulation of < 1 µg/g PCB.
2011globalPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)n/aliterature reviewHall A, Schwacke L, McConnell B, Rowles T (2011): Assessing the Population Consequences of Pollutant Exposure to Cetaceans using an Individual Based Modelling Framework. Doc SC/63/E5 for the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission.http://iwc.int/index.php?cID=580&cType=documentDevelopment of a model using the relationship between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake and its effect on early calf survival. The simulations indicated that at annual PCB exposure levels of above ~ 2-4 µg/g, depending on the species and population scenario, are likely to affect the potential population growth rate.For bottlenose dolphins an annual accumulation rate of between 0.2 and 0.4 µg/g PCB was calculated. For humpback whales authors estimate that potential population growth rate begins to decline at annual accumulation rates of >3 µg/g with a maximum depression at the highest accumulation rates (10 µg/g) of approximately 3% compared to the
uncontaminated population.
2002North AtlanticPFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/abiochemical analysis of liver and muscle samplesKannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Oehme G, Focardi S, Giesy J (2002): Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas. Environ Sci Technol. 36(15):3210-6.http://www.usask.ca/toxicology/jgiesy/pdf/publications/JA-317.pdfAuthors state: "Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was detected in all samples of marine wildlife, including bottlenose, common, and striped dolphins as well as fin and long-finned pilot whales. Highest concentrations were found in bottlenose dolphins... FOSA (Perfluorooctane-sulfonamide) was found in 14 of 19 livers or blood samples of marine mammals from the Mediterranean Sea; the highest concentration of 0.878 µg/g wet wt, was found in the liver of a common dolphin.... PFOS is a widespread contaminant in wildlife from the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas, while FOSA and PFOA were detected only in certain locations indicating their sporadic spatial distribution.Bottlenose dolphins: PFOS up to 0.04 µg/g, FOSA up to 0.038 µg/g, PFOA max 0.019 µg/g. Striped dolphin: PFOS up to 0.040 µg/g, FOSA up to 0.038 µg/g, PFOA < 0.007 µg/g. Common dolphin: PFOS up to 0.94 µg/g, FOSA up to 0.878 µg/g, PFOA max 0.038 µg/g. Long-finned pilot whales: PFOS up to 0.27 µg/g, FOSA up to 0.0.05 µg/g, PFOA <0.038 µg/g. Fin whales: PFOS and FOSA < 0.0019 µg/g each, PFOA < 0.038 µg/g.
1995ArcticCanadaPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), Toxaphene, DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/adaily intake calculations based on interviewsKuhnlein H, Receveur O, Muir D, Chan H, Soueida R. (1995): Arctic indigenous women consume greater than acceptable levels of organochlorines. J Nutr. 125(10):2501-10.http://jn.nutrition.org/content/125/10/2501.full.pdfFifty percent of the intake recalls collected from the Baffin Inuit exceeded the acceptable daily intake for chlordane-related compounds and toxaphene, and a substantial percentage of the intake records for dieldrin and polychlorinated
biphenyls exceeded the acceptable or tolerable daily intake levels. Primary contributing foods to organochlorine contaminants intake for the Baffin Inuit were meat and blubber of ringed seal, blubber of walrus and mattak and blubber of narwhal. Contamination levels in the communities Sahtú Dene/Metis were significantly lower for all analysed chemicals.
HCH: 0.163 µg/g wet wt in narwhal blubber. CHL: 2.14 µg/g wet wt in beluga blubber and up to 2.05 µg/g in narwhal blubber. DDT: 3.16 µg/g wet wt in beluga blubber and 2.73 µg/g in narwhal blubber. Dieldrin: 0.42 µg/g wet wt in narwhal blubber. Toxaphene: 8.43 µg/g wet wt in narwhal blubber and 4.58 µg/g wet wt in beluga blubber. PCB: 3.20 µg/g wet wt in narwhal blubber and 2.61 µg/g wet wt in beluga blubber.daily intake Baffin Inuit women: HCH 7.17 + 14.8 µg/day, CHL 30 ± 112 µg/day, DDT 27.8 + 80.1 µg/day. Dieldrine 6.40 ± 27.7 µg/day. Toxaphene 62 ± 237 µg/day. PCB 53 ± 166 µg/day.
1993North AtlanticUSAmercurybottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)n/abiochemical analysis of samples of stranded dolphins, histogical analysisRawson A, Patton G, Hofmann S, Pietra G, Johns L. (1993): Liver abnormalities associated with chronic mercury accumulation in stranded Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 25(1):41-7http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7682917Authors conclude: "Liver mercury concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 443 µg/g of wet weight with all animals having liver pigment yielding values of or above 61 micrograms/g, whereas all animals lacking pigment had values of or below 50 µg/g. The evidence suggests that the excessive pigment accumulation is related to toxic effects of Hg and presents as increased active liver disease."mercury levels in liver up to 0.443 µg/g wet wt.
2011ArcticAlaska (USA)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)n/abiochemical analysis of contaminants in different marine mammals (bowhead whale, polar bears, seals)Welfinger-Smith G, Minholz J, Byrne S, Waghiyi V, Gologergen J, Kava J, Apatiki M, Ungott E, Miller M, Arnason J, Carpenter D. (2011): Organochlorine and metal contaminants in traditional food from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. J Toxciol Environ Health, Part A: 74: 1195-1214
http://www.akaction.org/Tackling_Toxics/Alaska/CHE-AK_Info_Pages/2011/CHE_Resources_10-26-11/Organochlorine_and_Metal_Contaminants_in_Traditional_Foods_St_Lawrence_Island_Alaska.pdfContamination was highest in polar bears. While PCB and HCB levels in bowhead and seals was comparable, DDE level was higher in seals. Authors conclude: "PCB concentrations in organs were higher than meat. Concentrations of metals in oils and meats from all species were relatively low, but increased levels of mercury, cadmium, copper, and zinc were present in some liver and kidney samples. Mercury and arsenic were found in lipid-rich samples, indicating organometals. These results show that the source of the elevated concentrations of these contaminants in the Yupik population is primarily from consumption of marine mammal blubber and rendered oils.PCB: up to 0.398 µg/g wet wt in bowhead blubber, up to 0.53 µg/g in bowhead mungtak (blubber and skin). DDE: < 0.008 µg/g wet wt in bowhead blubber, < 0.011 µg/g in bowhead mungtak. HCB: up to 0.026 µg/g wet wt in bowhead blubber, up to 0.035 µg/g in bowhead mungtak
2004ArcticAlaska (USA)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), Orca (Orcinus orca)n/abiochemical analysis of biopsy samples of beluga and orcaKrahn M, Herman D, Ylitalo G, Sloan C, Burrows D, Hobbs R, Mahoney B, Yanagida G, Calambokidis J, Moore S (2004): Stratification of lipids, fatty acids and organochlorine contaminants in blubber of white whales and killer whales. J. Cetacean Res Manage 6(2):175–189http://www.cascadiaresearch.org/reports/JCRM-Blub%20Strat-175-189.pdfBlubber samples (necropsy) from one resident killer whale had mean concentrations of PCBs and DDTs that were about 3-fold higher (wet weight) or 9-fold higher (lipid weight) than those found in the most heavily contaminated white whale. The PCB and DDT levels found in one female transient killer whale were higher than any reported previously for either males or females from that ecotype - obviously due to diet largely on marina mammalscontaminant levels were different in different blubber layers. Beluga: PCB up to 2.6 µg/g lipid wet wt and up to 3.5 µg/g lipid wt; DDT: up to 3.2 µg/g lipid wet wt and up to 4.4 µg/g lipid wt. Orca: PCB up to 690 µg/g lipid wet wt and up to1,600 µg/g lipid wt. DDT: up to 3,100 µg/g lipid wet wt and up to 6,200 µg/g lipid wt
2010South AtlanticBrazilPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysisLeonel J, Sericano J, Fillmann G, Secchi E, Montone R (2010): Long-term trends of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) from Southern Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60: 412–418http://www.inct-ta.furg.br/english/producao/212010.pdfAmong the organochlorines compounds detected in P. blainvillei, PCBs showed the predominant concentrations followed by DDTs, CHLs, Mirex, Dieldrin and HCB.CHLs, Mirex, Dieldrin and HCB concentrations were about two orders of magnitude lower than PCBs and DDTs concentrations. Among the CHLs compounds, trans-nonachlor was the predominant (40%) followed by cis-nonachlor (38%).PCB: about 5 µg/g lipid wt. DDT: about 0.8 µg/g lipid wt (decreasingfrom 1.1 µg/g over last decade). HCB: about 0.03 µg/g lipid wt (decreasing from 0.07 µg/g over last decade). Chlordane: about 0.07 µg/g lipid wt (decreasing from 0.15 µg/g over last decade). Dieldrin: about 0.02 µg/g lipid wt (decreasing from 0.1 µg/g over last decade).
2007North AtlanticNorwayPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), CHL (chlordane), Toxaphene, DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)Orca (Orcinus orca)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber biopsy samplesWolkers H, Corkeron P, Van Parijs S, Similä T, Van Bavel B. (2007): Accumulation and transfer of contaminants in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Norway: indications for contaminant metabolism. Environ Toxicol Chem. 26(8):1582-90http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17702329Compared to seals and other cetaceans as well as polar bears, levels of all compounds measured were particularly high in the killer whales. Authors note: "Overall, contaminant levels in Norwegian killer whales are currently among the highest recorded for any arctic marine mammal species. This most likely is linked to their main food source, herring, which showed 10 to 15 times higher HOC levels than other fish species such as cod."Total chlordane: mean value of 6.565 µg/g lipid wt in blubber. Total PCB: up to 44 µg/g lw. DDE: 11.652 µg/g lw. Toxaphene: 8.2 µg/g lw. Total PBDE: 0.475 µg/g lw
2009Indian OceanFrancePCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)Orca (Orcinus orca)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsNoel, M., Barrett-Lennard, L., Guinet, C., Dangerfield, N., S.Ross, P. (2009): Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in killer whales (Orcinus orca) from the Crozet archipelago, southern Indian Ocean, Marine Environ Res doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.06.009http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141113609000701Authors tate: "Despite inhabiting an
isolated region far removed from industrial activities, these killer whales can presently be considered among the most PCB-contaminated cetaceans in the southern hemisphere. … Over 70 % of our study animals had PCB concentrations which exceeded a 1.3 mg/kg PCB threshold established for endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity in free-ranging harbour seals, suggesting that organic contaminants cannot be ruled out as an additional threat to this declining population."
PCB concentrations: 4.4-20.5 µg/g lipid weight. PCDD (Dioxin compound) levels 0.005-0.077 ng/g lw. PCDF levels up to 36.1 ng/kg lw.
2010South AtlanticBrazilPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from stranded dolphinsYogui G, Santos M, Bertozzi C, Montone R (2010): Levels of persistent organic pollutants and residual pattern of DDTs in small cetaceans from the coast of São Paulo, Brazil. Mar Pollut Bull. 60(10):1862-7http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969709012248study investigated organochlorines in five species of small cetaceans (Pontoporia blainvillei, Stenella frontalis, Sotalia guianensis, Tursiops truncatus and Steno bredanensis). Authors compare own results with data from other studies and conclude that "overall, OCs concentration in small cetaceans from the coast of São Paulo is lower than in dolphins from industrialized regions" and that "animals from the coast of São Paulo are among the most contaminated marine mammals in South America"DDTs (15.9 µg/g lipid; mean for all pooled
individuals) and PCBs (8.08 µg/g) exhibited the highest concentrations in the animals, reflecting large amounts formerly used in Brazil. Lower levels of mirex (0.149 µg/g), HCB (0.051 µg/g), CHLs (0.008 µg/g) and HCHs (0.007 µg/g) were detected in all species.
2009globalbrucellosisstriped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), small cetaceans (others or not identified), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)immuno system depression (frequent infections), impact on reproductivity/endocrine disruptorsVan Bressem MF, Raga JA, Di Guardo G, Jepson PD, Duignan PJ, Siebert U, Barrett T, Santos MC, Moreno IB, Siciliano S, Aguilar A, Van Waerebeek K. (2009): Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of environmental stressors. Dis Aquat Organ. 86(2):143-57.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19902843Authors note: "Brucella spp. are thought to interfere with population abundance by inducing high mortalities, lowering
reproductive success or by synergistically increasing the virulence of other diseases. The zoonotic hazard of marine mammal brucellosis and toxoplasmosis may have been underestimated, attributable to frequent misdiagnoses and underreporting, particularly in developing countries and remote areas."
Authors summarize: "Pathogenic findings associated with brucellosis in cetaceans include placentitis, orchitis, abortion, mastitis, pneumonia, subcutaneous lesions, arthritis, nonsuppurative meningo-encephalitis and encephalitis, hepatic and splenic coagulative necrosis and lymphadenitis. Brucella-induced neurologic disorders may lead to strandings."Authors warn: "Prevalence of human brucellosis from cetacean origin may be significantly underestimated in developing countries in Africa, South America and SE Asia, where freshly dead cetaceans are frequently handled, butchered and used as ‘marine bushmeat’ for human consumption or as bait in artisanal fisheries." And: "Restrictions should be applied to programmes where tourists are allowed to swim and interact closely with captive dolphins when Brucella spp. could be circulating in these colonies. Dolphins should at least be screened serologically for
Brucella spp. before they are used for such purposes.
2001Mediterranean SeaPortugalmercurycommon dolphin (Delphinus delphis)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from stranded dolphinsZhou JL, Salvador SM, Liu YP, Sequeira M. (2001): Heavy metals in the tissues of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded on the Portuguese coast. Sci Total Environ 273: 61-76http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11419603Total Hg concentration in the kidney, muscle and particularly liver, were higher in females than in males. Total Hg concentrations in all the organs increased with body length of
dolphins,
mercury, particularly in the liver up to 65.4 µg/g. up to 5.24 µg/g in the kidney and up to 2.93 µg/g in the muscle.
2010North AtlanticPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers)long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), northern minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from whale huntsvan Bavel , Rotander A, Lindstrom G, DamM, Polder, Riget F, Gudjon A (2010): BFRs in Arctic marine mammals during three decades. Not only a story of BDEs.Abstract for Fifth International Symposium on brominated flame retardants, 7-9 April 2010, Kyoto.http://www.bfr2013.com/abstract_download/2010/upload/90146.pdfPBDEs were analyzed in Pilot whale (Globicephala melas) from the Faroes Islands, Minke whale (Balaenoptera
acutorstrata) from Norway and Minke whale and Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) from Iceland. In all samples BDE were present at relatively high concentrations with the highest levels found in the end of the 1990s, beginning 2000.
details are not given
2012South AtlanticArgentinamercurylarge whale (others or unidentified)n/abiochemical analysis of samples from dead calvesMartino J, Wise1 S, Perkins C, Kerr I, Rowntree V, Sironi M, Wise J (2012): Metal levels in southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) skin biopsies from Península Valdés, Argentina. Doc SC/64/BRG7 for Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commissionhttp://iwc.int/index.php?cID=2789&cType=documentStudy aimed to explain high calf mortality in local southern right whale population by analysing metal concentrationsmercury levels: o.01 µg/g wet weight in adult females. According to a secxond study (Gil et al 2006) mercury levels in calves reached up to 0.04 µg/g ww.
2000ArcticGreenland (Denmark)mercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/abiochemical analysis of maternal blood samplesHansen J (2000): Environmental contaminants and human health in the Arctic. Toxicol Lett. 15;112-113:119-25.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720720In the AMAP human health study mercury, chlordane, PCBs, and trans-nonachlore were highest in Greenlandic Inuit, while for DDE and DDT levels were second highest, following levels in Russia. In the Greenlandic material 93% of the maternal blood samples exceeded the Canadian guideline value for PCBs (i.e. 5 µg/l). The authors concluded: "Weighing the risks against the benefits from traditional food the international human health group of AMAP decided to advice Arctic peoples to continue to eat traditional food and to breast feed their children, and to develop dietary advice for girls, women and childbearing age and pregnant women that would advocate the use of less contaminated food items,"average methyl mercury concentrations at about 0.5–1.0 µg/g wet weight have been reported for muscle tissue of narwhal and beluga.HCH in Greenland 18.5 µg/kg lipid (compared to 222-5 µg/kg in Russia). DDE: 407 µg/kg; DDT: 15.0 µg/kg; oxychlordane: 60.8 µg/kg; trans-nonachlor: 110 µg/kg; PCBs: 571 µg/kg. Mercury: 19.8 µg/l in maternal plasma
2000ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/abiochemical analysis of maternal blood samplesHansen J (2000): Environmental contaminants and human health in the Arctic. Toxicol Lett. 15;112-113:119-25.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10720720In the AMAP human health study contaminant levels in Canadian Inuit were significantly lower compared to Inuit from Greenland, but were higher than in samples from Sweden or Norway. The authors concluded: "Weighing the risks against the benefits from traditional food the international human health group of AMAP decided to advice Arctic peoples to continue to eat traditional food and to breast feed their children, and to develop dietary advice for girls, women and childbearing age and pregnant women that would advocate the use of less contaminated food items,"average methyl mercury concentrations at about 0.5–1.0 µg/g wet weight have been reported for muscle tissue of narwhal and beluga.HCH in Canada 9.3 µg/kg lipid. DDE: 133 µg/kg; DDT: 7.9 µg/kg; oxychlordane: 27.8 µg/kg; trans-nonachlor: 30.5 µg/kg; PCBs: 167 µg/kg. Mercury: 3.5 µg/l in maternal plasma
2010ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), PFCs (polyfluoroalkyl compounds), CHL (chlordane), DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), narwhal (Monodon monoceros)n/aDonaldson SG, Van Oostdam J, Tikhonov C, Feeley M, Armstrong B, Ayotte P, Boucher O, Bowers W, Chan L, Dallaire F, Dallaire R, Dewailly E, Edwards J, Egeland GM, Fontaine J, Furgal C, Leech T, Loring E, Muckle G, Nancarrow T, Pereg D, Plusquellec P, Potyrala M, Receveur O, Shearer RG. (2010): Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic. Sci Total Environ. 408(22):5165-234.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20728918Authors note: "Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. ... Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk management decision that will be the most beneficial in Arctic communities."PFC: 21 µg/l in Inuit women in 1992, 10 µg/l in 2004. PBDE: concentrations significantly increased within the period 1990-2002, with levels in Quebec being higher than in Nunavik.Mercury levels were higher in women, compared to men, and levels increased within the period 1990-2002. In contrary, PCB levels declined within that period and were lower in Inuit women, compared to men.
2003South AtlanticBrazilPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of samples of stranded indidviduals from different speciesKajiwara N, Matsuoka S, Iwata H, Tanabe S, Rosas F, Fillmann G, Readman J (2004): Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Contamination by persistent organochlorines in cetaceans incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 46, 124–134http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00244-003-2239-yAuthors summarize: Wide ranges of organochlorine residues were determined
in the blubber of franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei), estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), Atlantic spotted dolphin
(Stenella frontalis), and long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) incidentally caught along Brazilian coastal waters. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were the highest, followed by CHLs, dieldrin, TCPMe, HCB, HCHs and other substances. Unexpectedly, significant pollution of PCBs, DDTs, and some other components were observed in cetaceans from Brazil, implying the occurrence of local sources in the Southern Hemisphere comparable to those in the Northern Hemisphere, probably by high industrialization in Brazil. On the other hand, CHLs, HCB, HCHs, and dieldrin residue levels in Brazilian dolphins were much
lower than those in other species from the Northern Hemisphere. Levels were highest in mature males
Sotalia guianensis: up to 79 µg/g lipid weight PCB; up to 150 µg/g lw DDT, up to 1.1 µg/g lw Chlordane, up to 0.34 µg/g lw Dieldrin, up to 0.4 µg/g lw HCB, up to 0.061 µg/g lw HCH. Pontoporia blainvillei: up to 12 µg/g lipid weight PCB; up to 35 µg/g lw DDT, up to 0.11 µg/g lw Chlordane, up to 0.043 µg/g lw Dieldrin, up to 0.021 µg/g lw HCB, <6.8 µg/g lw HCH. Stenella frontalis: up to 60 µg/g lipid weight PCB; up to 48 µg/g lw DDT, up to 0.69 µg/g lw Chlordane, up to 0.39 µg/g lw Dieldrin, up to 0.084 µg/g lw HCB, up to 0.05 µg/g lw HCH. Delphinus capensis: up to 17 µg/g lipid weight PCB; up to 11 µg/g lw DDT, up to 0.2 µg/g lw Chlordane, up to 0.2 µg/g lw Dieldrin, up to 0.032 µg/g lw HCB, up to 0.024 µg/g lw HCH.
2010South AtlanticBrazilPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesLailson-Brito J, Dorneles PR, Azevedo-Silva CE, Azevedo AF, Vidal LG, Zanelatto RC, Lozinski CP, Azeredo A, Fragoso AB, Cunha HA, Torres JP, Malm O. (2010): High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations. Environ Pollut. 158(5):1800-8.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932538dolphin populations from three bays (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranaguá Bays) present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. Authors emphasize that "cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere."DDT: 0.65-23.555 µg/g lipids; PCB 0.76-99.175 µg/g; HCB: up to 0.156µg/g
1999North PacificChina (Hong Kong)PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), CHL (chlordane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), HCB (Hexachlorobenzene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane)small cetaceans (others or not identified)n/abiochemical analysis of blubber samplesMinh T, Watanabe M, Nakata H, Tanabe S, Jefferson T (1999): Contamination by Persistent Organochlorines in Small Cetaceans from Hong Kong Coastal Waters. Marine Pollut Bull 39(1-12): 383±392http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X99000661Indo-Pacifc hump-backed dolphin (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) …in Hong Kong coastal waters were analysed. Levels found were highest for DDT, followed by PCBs, HCHs, chlordane and HCB. Authors fear that "the present cetacean species may potentially be faced with high risk due to the elevated level of DDTs and PCBs." On the other hand "on a global scale, concentrations of HCHs and HCB were apparently lower than those in other countries in the Far East region and the other parts of the world."humpbacked dolphin: up to 80 µg/g wet wt DDT in blubber, up to 50 µg/g PCBs , up to 2.2 µg/g HCHs; up to 0.84 µg/g chlordane compounds; up to 0.24 µg/g HCB. Finless porpoise: up to 160 µg/g wet wt DDT in blubber, up to 48 µg/g PCBs , up to 1.1 µg/g HCHs; up to 0.72 µg/g chlordane compounds; up to 0.24 µg/g HCB.
2001ArcticCanadamercury, PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)beluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/abiochemical analysis of maternal blood and hair samplesMuckle G, Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Jacobson S, Jacobson J (2001): Determinants of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Methylmercury Exposure in Inuit Women of Childbearing Age. Environ Health Perspect 109:957–963
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240448/pdf/ehp0109-000957.pdfBeluga fat/muktuk was the sea mammal food most frequently consumed, followed by seal meat and seal fat. Beluga meat and seal liver were consumed less frequently. Authors note that "unexpectedly, a large proportion of women reported increasing their consumption of these foods during pregnancy." In contrast to seal and fish beluga meat and muktuk/fat consumption were unrelated to the mother’s socioeconomic circumstances.total PCB: uo tp 1.95 µg/g lipid wt; mercury up to 18.5 µg/g in hair and up to 0.221 µmol/l blood
2014North AmericaUSAPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)northern mink whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)n/aDietary exposure of Mink whales to Aroclor 1268 containing PCBsFolland, W. (2014): Assessing toxicity benchmarks of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals. Assessing toxicity benchmarks of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals. Doctorate Thesis. Michigan State University.http://search.proquest.com/docview/1642026022A variety of ecologically-relevant effects in Aroclor 1268-exposed mink were assessed to support development of toxicity reference values for Aroclor 1268. Mink were exposed to Aroclor 1268 in diet at concentrations that ranged from 1.8 to 29 micrograms Aroclor 1268/gram feed wet weight, and the positive control contained 0.0009 to 0.0013 micrograms PCB 126/gram feed wet weight.
2015Arcticmercurybeluga (Delphinapterus leucas)n/aBiochemical analysis of brain tissue in Beluga whalesKrey, A., Ostertag, SK., Chan, HM. (2015): Assessment of neurotoxic effects of mercury in beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Canadian Arctic. Science of The Total Environment 509-510: 237-247.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969714008262Average total Hg (THg) concentration in beluga whale brain was measured at > 3mg/kg wet weight. Authors: “The relatively high THg concentration in beluga whales exceeds all of the neurotoxicity thresholds assessed.”average mercury level in beluga brain tissue > 3 mg/kg ww.
2014North PacificRussiaDDD (dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethane),
DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene), DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane), HCH (Hexachlorcyclohexan), cadmium, lead, mercury
pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)n/aBiochemical analysis of liver and muscle tissue in Pacific walrusTsygankov, VY., Boyarova, MD., Lukyanova, ON. (2014): Persistent toxic substances in the muscles and liver of the pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger, 1815 from the Bering Sea . Russian Journal of Marine Biology 40(2): 147-151.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1063074014020102Total concentration of organochlorine pesticides (HCH, DDD, DDE, DDT) in walrus muscles between 200-5700 ng/g lipid weight and between 4900-90300 ng/g lipid weight in liver. Metals (all dry weight): cadmium: 0.04-6.7 μg/g, lead: 0.13-0.76 μg/g, mercury: 0.03-0.4 μg/g.
2015Antarctic, North PacificMercury, Methylmercury, PCB Baird’s Beaked Whales, Bryde’s Whales, Dalls Porpoise, Dolphins, Fin Whales, Minke Whales, Pilot Whales, Sei Whalesamage to vision and hearing, neurological damage, in severe cases, paralysis, coma and death, neurobehavioral deficits, adverse effects on memory and IQ, hypertension, reduced thyroid function, increased risk of cancer and diabeteshttps://eia-international.org/report/dangerous-diet-japan-fails-in-its-duty-of-care-over-toxic-whale-and-dolphin-meat
2015Antarctic, North PacificDichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), Polichlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)Pilot Whalesdefective sperm, sperm disomy, impact on testicular maturation and functionSperm Aneuploidy in Faroese Men with Lifetime Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Pollutants
2016European WatersPolychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)Harbor Porposie, Striped dolphins, Bottlenose dolphins, Orcaspopulation decline, suppress population recoveryPCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European watershttp://www.nature.com/articles/srep18573
2014South AtlanticBrazilcadmium, leadgreen sea turtle (chelonia mydas)n/aBiochemical analysis of muscle, liver and kidney tissue in stranded Green sea turtlesCarneiro da Silva, C., Varela Jr., AS., Barcarolli, IF., Bianchini, A. (2014): Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil. Science of The Total environment 466-467: 109-118.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969713007468Authors summarize: “Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals.” - “Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu.” – “Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil.” – “Concentrations of Cd and Cu in muscle are negatively correlated with body size.” – “Concentrations of non-essential and essential metals are positively correlated.”High levels of lead and cadmium (5.4 and 28.3 mg/kg, respectively) found in sea turtle kidneys.

 

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